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Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, ZnO bulk, and ZnCl₂ on earthworms in a spiked natural soil and toxicological effects of leachates on aquatic organisms.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014 Nov; 67(4):465-73.AE

Abstract

The present study assessed the uptake and toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), ZnO bulk, and ZnCl₂ salt in earthworms in spiked agricultural soils. In addition, the toxicity of aqueous extracts to Daphnia magna and Chlorella vulgaris was analyzed to determine the risk of these soils to the aquatic compartment. We then investigated the distribution of Zn in soil fractions to interpret the nature of toxicity. Neither mortality nor differences in earthworm body weight were observed compared with the control. The most sensitive end point was reproduction. ZnCl₂ was notably toxic in eliminating the production of cocoons. The effects induced by ZnO-NPs and bulk ZnO on fecundity were similar and lower than those of the salt. In contrast to ZnO bulk, ZnO-NPs adversely affected fertility. The internal concentrations of Zn in earthworms in the NP group were greater than those in the salt and bulk groups, although bioconcentration factors were consistently <1. No relationship was found between toxicity and internal Zn amounts in earthworms. The results from the sequential extraction of soil showed that ZnCl₂ displayed the highest availability compared with both ZnO. Zn distribution was consistent with the greatest toxicity showed by the salt but not with Zn body concentrations. The soil extracts from both ZnO-NPs and bulk ZnO did not show effects on aquatic organisms (Daphnia and algae) after short-term exposure. However, ZnCl₂ extracts (total and 0.45-μm filtered) were toxic to Daphnia.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of the Environment, INIA, Ctra A Coruña km 7.5, 28040, Madrid, Spain, cgarcia@inia.es.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24793192

Citation

García-Gómez, C, et al. "Toxicity of ZnO Nanoparticles, ZnO Bulk, and ZnCl₂ On Earthworms in a Spiked Natural Soil and Toxicological Effects of Leachates On Aquatic Organisms." Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 67, no. 4, 2014, pp. 465-73.
García-Gómez C, Babin M, Obrador A, et al. Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, ZnO bulk, and ZnCl₂ on earthworms in a spiked natural soil and toxicological effects of leachates on aquatic organisms. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014;67(4):465-73.
García-Gómez, C., Babin, M., Obrador, A., Álvarez, J. M., & Fernández, M. D. (2014). Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, ZnO bulk, and ZnCl₂ on earthworms in a spiked natural soil and toxicological effects of leachates on aquatic organisms. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 67(4), 465-73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-014-0025-7
García-Gómez C, et al. Toxicity of ZnO Nanoparticles, ZnO Bulk, and ZnCl₂ On Earthworms in a Spiked Natural Soil and Toxicological Effects of Leachates On Aquatic Organisms. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014;67(4):465-73. PubMed PMID: 24793192.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, ZnO bulk, and ZnCl₂ on earthworms in a spiked natural soil and toxicological effects of leachates on aquatic organisms. AU - García-Gómez,C, AU - Babin,M, AU - Obrador,A, AU - Álvarez,J M, AU - Fernández,M D, Y1 - 2014/05/04/ PY - 2013/12/24/received PY - 2014/03/25/accepted PY - 2014/5/6/entrez PY - 2014/5/6/pubmed PY - 2015/1/22/medline SP - 465 EP - 73 JF - Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology JO - Arch Environ Contam Toxicol VL - 67 IS - 4 N2 - The present study assessed the uptake and toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), ZnO bulk, and ZnCl₂ salt in earthworms in spiked agricultural soils. In addition, the toxicity of aqueous extracts to Daphnia magna and Chlorella vulgaris was analyzed to determine the risk of these soils to the aquatic compartment. We then investigated the distribution of Zn in soil fractions to interpret the nature of toxicity. Neither mortality nor differences in earthworm body weight were observed compared with the control. The most sensitive end point was reproduction. ZnCl₂ was notably toxic in eliminating the production of cocoons. The effects induced by ZnO-NPs and bulk ZnO on fecundity were similar and lower than those of the salt. In contrast to ZnO bulk, ZnO-NPs adversely affected fertility. The internal concentrations of Zn in earthworms in the NP group were greater than those in the salt and bulk groups, although bioconcentration factors were consistently <1. No relationship was found between toxicity and internal Zn amounts in earthworms. The results from the sequential extraction of soil showed that ZnCl₂ displayed the highest availability compared with both ZnO. Zn distribution was consistent with the greatest toxicity showed by the salt but not with Zn body concentrations. The soil extracts from both ZnO-NPs and bulk ZnO did not show effects on aquatic organisms (Daphnia and algae) after short-term exposure. However, ZnCl₂ extracts (total and 0.45-μm filtered) were toxic to Daphnia. SN - 1432-0703 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24793192/Toxicity_of_ZnO_nanoparticles_ZnO_bulk_and_ZnCl₂_on_earthworms_in_a_spiked_natural_soil_and_toxicological_effects_of_leachates_on_aquatic_organisms_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-014-0025-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -