Occurrence of Clostridium difficile PCR-ribotype 027 and it's closely related PCR-ribotype 176 in hospitals in Poland in 2008-2010.Anaerobe. 2014 Aug; 28:13-7.A
Since 2003, a rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and Europe has coincided with outbreaks of C. difficile PCR ribotype 027. This ribotype was not observed in Poland until 2008. In the period 2008-2010, outbreaks of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea occurred in three different hospitals in Poland. Of 30 C. difficile isolates available for microbiological characterisation, 17 (56%) were positive for binary toxin genes and belonged to PCR ribotype 027 (n = 7) and its closely related PCR ribotype 176 (n = 10). All 17 binary toxin-positive C. difficile strains demonstrated high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 32 mg/L), including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin, as well as erythromycin and clindamycin (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L for both). Of 14 patients from whom clinical information was available, 50% had a severe form of CDI, defined by fever (>38.5 °C), decreased kidney function, and high leucocyte count. We conclude that outbreaks of CDI associated with hypervirulent strains belonging to PCR ribotypes 027 and 176 occurred in hospitals in Poland. Further studies evaluating the clinical impact of type 176 are urgently needed.