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Effects of cortisol on the intestinal mucosal immune response during cohabitant challenge with IPNV in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
PLoS One 2014; 9(5):e94288Plos

Abstract

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes high incidence of disease in salmonids during the first period after SW transfer. During this period as well as during periods of stress, cortisol levels increase and indications of a relationship between IPNV susceptibility and cortisol have been suggested. The intestine is an entry route and a target tissue for IPNV displaying severe enteritis and sloughing of the mucosa in infected fish. The mechanisms behind effects of the virus on the intestinal tissue and the impact of cortisol on the effect remain unclear. In the present study, Atlantic salmon post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased mRNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head kidney was down regulated at the mRNA level. Number of CD8α lymphocytes decreased in the proximal intestine in response to cortisol. On the other hand, mRNA expression of Mx and IL-1β increased in the proximal intestine and head kidney in IPNV challenged fish in the presence of cortisol suggesting that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune response differs from the systemic, but that both are modulated by the stress hormone cortisol.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Fish Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.Fish Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.Department of Animal Welfare, Institute of Marine Research, Matredal, Norway.Fish Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.Department of Cancer and Inflammation, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.Fish Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24809845

Citation

Niklasson, Lars, et al. "Effects of Cortisol On the Intestinal Mucosal Immune Response During Cohabitant Challenge With IPNV in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar)." PloS One, vol. 9, no. 5, 2014, pp. e94288.
Niklasson L, Sundh H, Olsen RE, et al. Effects of cortisol on the intestinal mucosal immune response during cohabitant challenge with IPNV in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). PLoS ONE. 2014;9(5):e94288.
Niklasson, L., Sundh, H., Olsen, R. E., Jutfelt, F., Skjødt, K., Nilsen, T. O., & Sundell, K. S. (2014). Effects of cortisol on the intestinal mucosal immune response during cohabitant challenge with IPNV in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). PloS One, 9(5), pp. e94288. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094288.
Niklasson L, et al. Effects of Cortisol On the Intestinal Mucosal Immune Response During Cohabitant Challenge With IPNV in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar). PLoS ONE. 2014;9(5):e94288. PubMed PMID: 24809845.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of cortisol on the intestinal mucosal immune response during cohabitant challenge with IPNV in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). AU - Niklasson,Lars, AU - Sundh,Henrik, AU - Olsen,Rolf-Erik, AU - Jutfelt,Fredrik, AU - Skjødt,Karsten, AU - Nilsen,Tom O, AU - Sundell,Kristina Snuttan, Y1 - 2014/05/08/ PY - 2013/05/06/received PY - 2014/03/15/accepted PY - 2014/5/10/entrez PY - 2014/5/9/pubmed PY - 2015/10/17/medline SP - e94288 EP - e94288 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 9 IS - 5 N2 - Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes high incidence of disease in salmonids during the first period after SW transfer. During this period as well as during periods of stress, cortisol levels increase and indications of a relationship between IPNV susceptibility and cortisol have been suggested. The intestine is an entry route and a target tissue for IPNV displaying severe enteritis and sloughing of the mucosa in infected fish. The mechanisms behind effects of the virus on the intestinal tissue and the impact of cortisol on the effect remain unclear. In the present study, Atlantic salmon post smolts treated with or without slow release cortisol implants were subjected to a cohabitant IPNV challenge. Analysis of genes and proteins related to the innate and acquired immune responses against virus was performed 6 days post-challenge using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. An increased mRNA expression of anti-viral cytokine interferon type I was observed in the proximal intestine and head kidney as a response to the viral challenge and this effect was suppressed by cortisol. No effect was seen in the distal intestine. T-cell marker CD3 as well as MHC-I in both intestinal regions and in the head kidney was down regulated at the mRNA level. Number of CD8α lymphocytes decreased in the proximal intestine in response to cortisol. On the other hand, mRNA expression of Mx and IL-1β increased in the proximal intestine and head kidney in IPNV challenged fish in the presence of cortisol suggesting that the immune activation shifts in timing and response pathway during simulated stress. The present study clearly demonstrates that IPNV infection results in a differentiated epithelial immune response in the different intestinal regions of the Atlantic salmon. It also reveals that the epithelial immune response differs from the systemic, but that both are modulated by the stress hormone cortisol. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24809845/Effects_of_cortisol_on_the_intestinal_mucosal_immune_response_during_cohabitant_challenge_with_IPNV_in_Atlantic_salmon__Salmo_salar__ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094288 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -