A comparison of beverage intakes in US children based on WIC participation and eligibility.J Nutr Educ Behav. 2014 May-Jun; 46(3 Suppl):S59-64.JN
To compare beverage intakes for 2- to 4-year-olds based on Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participation.
Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010 were analyzed to assess beverage intakes for 2- to 4-year-olds. Children were classified as WIC participants, low-income nonparticipants, and higher-income nonparticipants. All beverages were manually coded into 6 categories: water, milk, 100% juice, fruit drinks, soda, and low-calorie/diet drinks. Grams, calories, and percent consumers of each beverage were compared across groups.
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participants had the highest 100% juice consumption (P = .001) and their milk consumption was similar to higher-income children. Higher-income nonparticipants drank significantly less fruit drink (P < .001) and soda (P = .001) than both the WIC participants and low-income nonparticipants.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Participation in WIC was related to higher intakes of the beverages provided in food packages for 2- to 4-year-olds. Intakes of fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverages should be addressed during the WIC nutrition education counseling sessions.