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Determination of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine in urine by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction using an essential oil as supported liquid membrane.
Forensic Sci Int. 2014 Oct; 243:47-54.FS

Abstract

Here, we present a method for the determination of ketamine (KT) and its main metabolites, norketamine (NK) and dehydronorketamine (DHNK) in urine samples by using hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) in the three-phase mode. The fiber pores were filled with eucalyptus essential oil and a solution of 1.0mol/L of HCl was introduced into the lumen of the fiber (acceptor phase). The fiber was submersed in the alkalinized urine containing 10% NaCl, and the system was submitted to lateral shaking (2400rpm) during 30min. Acceptor phase was withdrawn from the fiber, dried and the residue was then derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) for further determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The calibration curves were linear over the specified range and limits of detection (LoDs) obtained for KT, NK and DHNK were below the cut-off value (1.0ng/mL) recommended by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). A totally "green chemistry" approach of the sample extraction was obtained by using essential oil as a supported liquid membrane in HF-LPME. The developed method was successfully validated and applied to urine samples collected from two clinical cases in which KT was suspected to be involved.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: andrebairros@yahoo.com.br.Campinas Poison Control Center, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Validation Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24810678

Citation

Bairros, André Valle de, et al. "Determination of Ketamine, Norketamine and Dehydronorketamine in Urine By Hollow-fiber Liquid-phase Microextraction Using an Essential Oil as Supported Liquid Membrane." Forensic Science International, vol. 243, 2014, pp. 47-54.
Bairros AV, Lanaro R, Almeida RM, et al. Determination of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine in urine by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction using an essential oil as supported liquid membrane. Forensic Sci Int. 2014;243:47-54.
Bairros, A. V., Lanaro, R., Almeida, R. M., & Yonamine, M. (2014). Determination of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine in urine by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction using an essential oil as supported liquid membrane. Forensic Science International, 243, 47-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.04.016
Bairros AV, et al. Determination of Ketamine, Norketamine and Dehydronorketamine in Urine By Hollow-fiber Liquid-phase Microextraction Using an Essential Oil as Supported Liquid Membrane. Forensic Sci Int. 2014;243:47-54. PubMed PMID: 24810678.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine in urine by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction using an essential oil as supported liquid membrane. AU - Bairros,André Valle de, AU - Lanaro,Rafael, AU - Almeida,Rafael Menck de, AU - Yonamine,Mauricio, Y1 - 2014/04/18/ PY - 2013/10/21/received PY - 2014/03/18/revised PY - 2014/04/09/accepted PY - 2014/5/10/entrez PY - 2014/5/9/pubmed PY - 2015/11/13/medline KW - Essential oils KW - Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry KW - Hollow fiber–liquid phase microextraction KW - Ketamine KW - Urine SP - 47 EP - 54 JF - Forensic science international JO - Forensic Sci Int VL - 243 N2 - Here, we present a method for the determination of ketamine (KT) and its main metabolites, norketamine (NK) and dehydronorketamine (DHNK) in urine samples by using hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) in the three-phase mode. The fiber pores were filled with eucalyptus essential oil and a solution of 1.0mol/L of HCl was introduced into the lumen of the fiber (acceptor phase). The fiber was submersed in the alkalinized urine containing 10% NaCl, and the system was submitted to lateral shaking (2400rpm) during 30min. Acceptor phase was withdrawn from the fiber, dried and the residue was then derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) for further determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The calibration curves were linear over the specified range and limits of detection (LoDs) obtained for KT, NK and DHNK were below the cut-off value (1.0ng/mL) recommended by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). A totally "green chemistry" approach of the sample extraction was obtained by using essential oil as a supported liquid membrane in HF-LPME. The developed method was successfully validated and applied to urine samples collected from two clinical cases in which KT was suspected to be involved. SN - 1872-6283 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24810678/Determination_of_ketamine_norketamine_and_dehydronorketamine_in_urine_by_hollow_fiber_liquid_phase_microextraction_using_an_essential_oil_as_supported_liquid_membrane_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0379-0738(14)00156-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -