CDX1 restricts the invasion of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells by inhibiting MMP-9 expression.Placenta 2014; 35(7):450-4P
Pathogenesis of early-onset preeclampsia (PE) is generally recognized by impaired trophoblast invasion of the myometrial arteries, which results in placental insufficiency. Recently, we reported that CDX1 is hypermethylated in the human preeclampsia placenta. However, whether CDX1 participates in trophoblast invasion has not been clearly elucidated.
We investigated the function of CDX1 in the extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo using stable transfection of CDX1. Using a CDX1 stable transfected cell line, we determined the cell invasion using a QCM ECMatrix 24-well kit. The cell viability was detected using an MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting analyses were performed to examine the changes in the expression of downstream target genes and proteins. To disrupt PI3K/AKT signaling, we used the PI3K inhibitor perifosine.
Cell invasion assays demonstrated that CDX1 restricts trophoblast cell invasiveness. In contrast, quantification of cumulative cell numbers revealed that CDX1 did not affect cell proliferation. Western blotting analysis and quantitative real time PCR demonstrated that MMP-9 expression was reduced, whereas TIMP-1 expression was increased in CDX1-overexpressed cells. However, overexpression of CDX1 did not affect PI3K/AKT signaling in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells. In contrast, CDX1 was regulated by the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Altogether, we found that in trophoblast cells, CDX1 reduced invasion independently of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, CDX1 functions in concert with PI3K/AKT signaling to regulate trophoblast invasion. We concluded that CDX1 restricts the invasion of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells by inhibiting MMP-9 expression independently of the PI3K/AKT pathway.