Vitamin D status and Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Neurol Sci 2014; 35(11):1723-30NS
To estimate the associations between vitamin D status and Parkinson's disease (PD). We searched electronic databases of the human literature in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library up to February, 2014 using the following keywords: 'vitamin D' or '25(OH)D' and 'status' or 'deficiency' or 'insufficiency' and 'Parkinson's disease'. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on observational studies that reported the association between blood vitamin D levels and PD. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. 1,008 patients and 4,536 controls were included. Results of our meta-analysis show that PD patients had lower mean levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] than healthy controls [weighted mean difference (MD), -16.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI)], -33.5 to -0.2). Patients with vitamin D insufficiency [25(OH)D level <75 nmol/l] had an increased risk of PD (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.1-2.0). Patients with vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D level <50 nmol/l] experienced a twofold increased risk of PD (OR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.5-3.4). Low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of PD.