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Mercury in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment: an update.
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15; 509-510:28-40.ST

Abstract

Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twenty years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper provides the current state of knowledge on mercury (Hg) in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment. Snow, ice, and soils on land are key reservoirs for atmospheric deposition and can become sources of Hg through the melting of terrestrial ice and snow and via soil erosion. In the Canadian Arctic, new data have been collected for snow and ice that provide more information on the net accumulation and storage of Hg in the cryosphere. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) in terrestrial snow are highly variable but on average, relatively low (<5 ng L(-1)), and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in terrestrial snow are also generally low (<0.1 ng L(-1)). On average, THg concentrations in snow on Canadian Arctic glaciers are much lower than those reported on terrestrial lowlands or sea ice. Hg in snow may be affected by photochemical exchanges with the atmosphere mediated by marine aerosols and halogens, and by post-depositional redistribution within the snow pack. Regional accumulation rates of THg in Canadian Arctic glaciers varied little during the past century but show evidence of an increasing north-to-south gradient. Temporal trends of THg in glacier cores indicate an abrupt increase in the early 1990 s, possibly due to volcanic emissions, followed by more stable, but relatively elevated levels. Little information is available on Hg concentrations and processes in Arctic soils. Terrestrial Arctic wildlife typically have low levels of THg (<5 μg g(-1) dry weight) in their tissues, although caribou (Rangifer tarandus) can have higher Hg because they consume large amounts of lichen. THg concentrations in the Yukon's Porcupine caribou herd vary among years but there has been no significant increase or decrease over the last two decades.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Gamberg Consulting, Box 30130, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada Y1A 5M2. Electronic address: mary.gamberg@gmail.com.Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3.University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5.Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0E4.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24861531

Citation

Gamberg, Mary, et al. "Mercury in the Canadian Arctic Terrestrial Environment: an Update." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 509-510, 2015, pp. 28-40.
Gamberg M, Chételat J, Poulain AJ, et al. Mercury in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment: an update. Sci Total Environ. 2015;509-510:28-40.
Gamberg, M., Chételat, J., Poulain, A. J., Zdanowicz, C., & Zheng, J. (2015). Mercury in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment: an update. The Science of the Total Environment, 509-510, 28-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.070
Gamberg M, et al. Mercury in the Canadian Arctic Terrestrial Environment: an Update. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:28-40. PubMed PMID: 24861531.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mercury in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment: an update. AU - Gamberg,Mary, AU - Chételat,John, AU - Poulain,Alexandre J, AU - Zdanowicz,Christian, AU - Zheng,Jiancheng, Y1 - 2014/05/24/ PY - 2013/12/17/received PY - 2014/04/09/revised PY - 2014/04/15/accepted PY - 2014/5/28/entrez PY - 2014/5/28/pubmed PY - 2015/6/6/medline KW - Arctic KW - Glacier KW - Mercury KW - Snow KW - Temporal trends KW - Wildlife SP - 28 EP - 40 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 509-510 N2 - Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twenty years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper provides the current state of knowledge on mercury (Hg) in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment. Snow, ice, and soils on land are key reservoirs for atmospheric deposition and can become sources of Hg through the melting of terrestrial ice and snow and via soil erosion. In the Canadian Arctic, new data have been collected for snow and ice that provide more information on the net accumulation and storage of Hg in the cryosphere. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) in terrestrial snow are highly variable but on average, relatively low (<5 ng L(-1)), and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in terrestrial snow are also generally low (<0.1 ng L(-1)). On average, THg concentrations in snow on Canadian Arctic glaciers are much lower than those reported on terrestrial lowlands or sea ice. Hg in snow may be affected by photochemical exchanges with the atmosphere mediated by marine aerosols and halogens, and by post-depositional redistribution within the snow pack. Regional accumulation rates of THg in Canadian Arctic glaciers varied little during the past century but show evidence of an increasing north-to-south gradient. Temporal trends of THg in glacier cores indicate an abrupt increase in the early 1990 s, possibly due to volcanic emissions, followed by more stable, but relatively elevated levels. Little information is available on Hg concentrations and processes in Arctic soils. Terrestrial Arctic wildlife typically have low levels of THg (<5 μg g(-1) dry weight) in their tissues, although caribou (Rangifer tarandus) can have higher Hg because they consume large amounts of lichen. THg concentrations in the Yukon's Porcupine caribou herd vary among years but there has been no significant increase or decrease over the last two decades. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24861531/Mercury_in_the_Canadian_Arctic_terrestrial_environment:_an_update_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(14)00580-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -