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Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis.
Addiction 2014; 109(8):1338-52A

Abstract

AIMS

To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population.

DESIGN

Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS

Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million).

MEASUREMENTS

Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

FINDINGS

Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10(-3)), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities.

CONCLUSIONS

Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24861844

Citation

Ort, Christoph, et al. "Spatial Differences and Temporal Changes in Illicit Drug Use in Europe Quantified By Wastewater Analysis." Addiction (Abingdon, England), vol. 109, no. 8, 2014, pp. 1338-52.
Ort C, van Nuijs AL, Berset JD, et al. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis. Addiction. 2014;109(8):1338-52.
Ort, C., van Nuijs, A. L., Berset, J. D., Bijlsma, L., Castiglioni, S., Covaci, A., ... Thomas, K. V. (2014). Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 109(8), pp. 1338-52. doi:10.1111/add.12570.
Ort C, et al. Spatial Differences and Temporal Changes in Illicit Drug Use in Europe Quantified By Wastewater Analysis. Addiction. 2014;109(8):1338-52. PubMed PMID: 24861844.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis. AU - Ort,Christoph, AU - van Nuijs,Alexander L N, AU - Berset,Jean-Daniel, AU - Bijlsma,Lubertus, AU - Castiglioni,Sara, AU - Covaci,Adrian, AU - de Voogt,Pim, AU - Emke,Erik, AU - Fatta-Kassinos,Despo, AU - Griffiths,Paul, AU - Hernández,Félix, AU - González-Mariño,Iria, AU - Grabic,Roman, AU - Kasprzyk-Hordern,Barbara, AU - Mastroianni,Nicola, AU - Meierjohann,Axel, AU - Nefau,Thomas, AU - Ostman,Marcus, AU - Pico,Yolanda, AU - Racamonde,Ines, AU - Reid,Malcolm, AU - Slobodnik,Jaroslav, AU - Terzic,Senka, AU - Thomaidis,Nikolaos, AU - Thomas,Kevin V, Y1 - 2014/05/27/ PY - 2013/07/24/received PY - 2013/10/09/revised PY - 2014/04/01/accepted PY - 2014/5/28/entrez PY - 2014/5/28/pubmed PY - 2015/10/9/medline KW - Amphetamine KW - cannabis KW - cocaine KW - drugs of abuse KW - ecstasy KW - methamphetamine KW - sewage SP - 1338 EP - 52 JF - Addiction (Abingdon, England) JO - Addiction VL - 109 IS - 8 N2 - AIMS: To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. DESIGN: Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). MEASUREMENTS: Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. FINDINGS: Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10(-3)), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. CONCLUSIONS: Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. SN - 1360-0443 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24861844/Spatial_differences_and_temporal_changes_in_illicit_drug_use_in_Europe_quantified_by_wastewater_analysis_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12570 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -