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Impact of visors on eye and orbital injuries in the National Hockey League.
Can J Ophthalmol 2014; 49(3):243-8CJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Eye and orbital injuries are a significant risk to professional hockey league players and have resulted in career-ending injuries. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence, value lost, mechanism, and effect of visors on eye and orbital injuries over the last 10 National Hockey League (NHL) seasons: 2002-2003 to 2012-2013.

DESIGN

Retrospective case-control study.

PARTICIPANTS

Participants were 8741 NHL players who had played at least 1 game during the last 10 seasons.

METHODS

Using The Sports Network (TSN), ProSportsTransactions, and the Sporting News Hockey Register, NHL players were searched to identify eye and orbital injuries. The mechanism of injury was obtained from media reports and direct observation from online videos. The number of players wearing visors each year was obtained from The Hockey News annual visor survey.

RESULTS

A total of 149 eye or orbital injuries over the last 10 seasons resulted in an overall incidence of 2.48 per 10 000 athlete exposures. A total of 1120 missed games led to a lost financial value of more than $33 million. Visor use among players grew from 32% in 2002-2003 to 73% in 2012-2013, and there was a significantly increased risk for having an eye or orbital injury when a visor was not worn (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.84-6.30). Most injuries were a result of being hit by a deflected or direct puck (37%) followed by being struck by a high stick (28%). Players who did not wear a visor were found to be involved in more fights, hits, and penalty minutes (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Eye and orbital injuries are mostly accidental in nature and represent a significant risk and cost to the NHL and its players. Eye and orbital injuries are significantly more likely in players who do not wear visors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.. Electronic address: jonathanmicieli@gmail.com.Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Trillium Health Partners; Credit Valley EyeCare, Mississauga, Ont.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24862769

Citation

Micieli, Jonathan A., et al. "Impact of Visors On Eye and Orbital Injuries in the National Hockey League." Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie, vol. 49, no. 3, 2014, pp. 243-8.
Micieli JA, Zurakowski D, Ahmed II. Impact of visors on eye and orbital injuries in the National Hockey League. Can J Ophthalmol. 2014;49(3):243-8.
Micieli, J. A., Zurakowski, D., & Ahmed, I. I. (2014). Impact of visors on eye and orbital injuries in the National Hockey League. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie, 49(3), pp. 243-8. doi:10.1016/j.jcjo.2014.03.008.
Micieli JA, Zurakowski D, Ahmed II. Impact of Visors On Eye and Orbital Injuries in the National Hockey League. Can J Ophthalmol. 2014;49(3):243-8. PubMed PMID: 24862769.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Impact of visors on eye and orbital injuries in the National Hockey League. AU - Micieli,Jonathan A, AU - Zurakowski,David, AU - Ahmed,Iqbal Ike K, PY - 2013/10/27/received PY - 2014/03/08/revised PY - 2014/03/16/accepted PY - 2014/5/28/entrez PY - 2014/5/28/pubmed PY - 2014/10/29/medline SP - 243 EP - 8 JF - Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie JO - Can. J. Ophthalmol. VL - 49 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Eye and orbital injuries are a significant risk to professional hockey league players and have resulted in career-ending injuries. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence, value lost, mechanism, and effect of visors on eye and orbital injuries over the last 10 National Hockey League (NHL) seasons: 2002-2003 to 2012-2013. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 8741 NHL players who had played at least 1 game during the last 10 seasons. METHODS: Using The Sports Network (TSN), ProSportsTransactions, and the Sporting News Hockey Register, NHL players were searched to identify eye and orbital injuries. The mechanism of injury was obtained from media reports and direct observation from online videos. The number of players wearing visors each year was obtained from The Hockey News annual visor survey. RESULTS: A total of 149 eye or orbital injuries over the last 10 seasons resulted in an overall incidence of 2.48 per 10 000 athlete exposures. A total of 1120 missed games led to a lost financial value of more than $33 million. Visor use among players grew from 32% in 2002-2003 to 73% in 2012-2013, and there was a significantly increased risk for having an eye or orbital injury when a visor was not worn (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.84-6.30). Most injuries were a result of being hit by a deflected or direct puck (37%) followed by being struck by a high stick (28%). Players who did not wear a visor were found to be involved in more fights, hits, and penalty minutes (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Eye and orbital injuries are mostly accidental in nature and represent a significant risk and cost to the NHL and its players. Eye and orbital injuries are significantly more likely in players who do not wear visors. SN - 1715-3360 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24862769/Impact_of_visors_on_eye_and_orbital_injuries_in_the_National_Hockey_League_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0008-4182(14)00084-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -