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Comparison of the effects of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma levels of free and esterified oxylipins.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2014 Oct; 113-115:21-9.PO

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

It is believed that many of the beneficial effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are mediated by their oxidized metabolites, the oxylipins. The formation and biological role of many cytochrome P450 and lipoxygenase derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FA, particularly of oxylipins esterified in polar lipids and triglycerides remain unclear. In this study, we compared the impact of twelve weeks of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation on the patterns of free and total (sum of esterified and free) hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FAs.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

Subjects (5 male; 5 female) between 46 and 70 years were supplemented with 1.1g/d of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 0.74g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as ethyl esters. Blood samples were drawn before and after twelve weeks of treatment. Oxylipins in plasma were analyzed by LC-MS directly for free oxylipins and after saponification. Relative FA composition in erythrocyte membranes was analyzed by GC.

RESULTS

LC n-3 PUFA treatment led to a significant increase in EPA (200%) and DHA (23%) in erythrocyte membranes. Of the oxylipins measured in plasma, total and free EPA-derived metabolites were highly increased (70-150%), while total AA-derived metabolites were decreased on average by 30%. There was no effect on DHA-metabolites. Concentrations of total hydroxy and epoxy FAs in plasma were considerably higher compared to free hydroxy and epoxy FAs (up to 350 times), while levels of most free dihydroxy FAs were in a similar range to total dihydroxy FAs. However, the individual ratios between total and free plasma oxylipins remained unchanged after LC n-3 PUFA treatment.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

LC n-3 PUFA supplementation causes a shift in the levels of circulating oxylipins, having the strongest impact on EPA-derived epoxy, dihydroxy and hydroxy FA. The unchanged ratio of free and esterified oxylipins in plasma indicates that both concentrations are valuable biomarkers for assessing the individual status of these lipid mediators.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. Electronic address: schebb@wwu.de.Institute for Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany.Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Davis, CA, USA.Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Davis, CA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24880049

Citation

Schebb, Nils Helge, et al. "Comparison of the Effects of Long-chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation On Plasma Levels of Free and Esterified Oxylipins." Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, vol. 113-115, 2014, pp. 21-9.
Schebb NH, Ostermann AI, Yang J, et al. Comparison of the effects of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma levels of free and esterified oxylipins. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2014;113-115:21-9.
Schebb, N. H., Ostermann, A. I., Yang, J., Hammock, B. D., Hahn, A., & Schuchardt, J. P. (2014). Comparison of the effects of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma levels of free and esterified oxylipins. Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, 113-115, 21-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2014.05.002
Schebb NH, et al. Comparison of the Effects of Long-chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation On Plasma Levels of Free and Esterified Oxylipins. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2014;113-115:21-9. PubMed PMID: 24880049.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of the effects of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma levels of free and esterified oxylipins. AU - Schebb,Nils Helge, AU - Ostermann,Annika I, AU - Yang,Jun, AU - Hammock,Bruce D, AU - Hahn,Andreas, AU - Schuchardt,Jan Philipp, Y1 - 2014/05/29/ PY - 2014/03/12/received PY - 2014/05/08/revised PY - 2014/05/20/accepted PY - 2014/6/1/entrez PY - 2014/6/1/pubmed PY - 2015/8/19/medline KW - Arachidonic acid KW - DHA KW - Diols KW - EPA KW - Eicosanoids KW - Epoxides KW - Omega-3 fatty acids KW - PUFA SP - 21 EP - 9 JF - Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators JO - Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat VL - 113-115 N2 - INTRODUCTION: It is believed that many of the beneficial effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are mediated by their oxidized metabolites, the oxylipins. The formation and biological role of many cytochrome P450 and lipoxygenase derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FA, particularly of oxylipins esterified in polar lipids and triglycerides remain unclear. In this study, we compared the impact of twelve weeks of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation on the patterns of free and total (sum of esterified and free) hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FAs. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects (5 male; 5 female) between 46 and 70 years were supplemented with 1.1g/d of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 0.74g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as ethyl esters. Blood samples were drawn before and after twelve weeks of treatment. Oxylipins in plasma were analyzed by LC-MS directly for free oxylipins and after saponification. Relative FA composition in erythrocyte membranes was analyzed by GC. RESULTS: LC n-3 PUFA treatment led to a significant increase in EPA (200%) and DHA (23%) in erythrocyte membranes. Of the oxylipins measured in plasma, total and free EPA-derived metabolites were highly increased (70-150%), while total AA-derived metabolites were decreased on average by 30%. There was no effect on DHA-metabolites. Concentrations of total hydroxy and epoxy FAs in plasma were considerably higher compared to free hydroxy and epoxy FAs (up to 350 times), while levels of most free dihydroxy FAs were in a similar range to total dihydroxy FAs. However, the individual ratios between total and free plasma oxylipins remained unchanged after LC n-3 PUFA treatment. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: LC n-3 PUFA supplementation causes a shift in the levels of circulating oxylipins, having the strongest impact on EPA-derived epoxy, dihydroxy and hydroxy FA. The unchanged ratio of free and esterified oxylipins in plasma indicates that both concentrations are valuable biomarkers for assessing the individual status of these lipid mediators. SN - 1098-8823 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24880049/Comparison_of_the_effects_of_long_chain_omega_3_fatty_acid_supplementation_on_plasma_levels_of_free_and_esterified_oxylipins_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1098-8823(14)00025-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -