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Levels and variability of metals in soils of the province of Golestan (Iran).
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014 Nov; 67(4):617-29.AE

Abstract

Studying the concentration distribution of metals is necessary for soil pollution monitoring and maintaining environmental quality. To date, very little large-scale research has been performed to investigate metal contamination in developing countries. In this study, the content and spatial distributions of five metals (cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], and zinc [Zn]) were quantified based on 346 topsoil samples from 12 districts in the province of Golestan (northeast [NE] Iran). The concentration levels (mg/kg) of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn varied from 0.02 to 0.36, 9.3 to 93.7, 6.8 to 44, 9.5 to 85.35, and 25 to 417.4, respectively. The average concentrations (mg/kg) obtained were as follows: Cd 0.12 ± 0.07, Cu 23.9 ± 9.07, Ni 34.88 ± 11.59, Pb 15.42 ± 5.81 and Zn 82.08 ± 30.87. Significant differences in the distribution of trace elements among districts were detected. The AzadShahr and BandarGaz districts displayed the highest metal concentrations. Greater metal values were obtained in the central, south, west, and NE areas, although Zn concentration was also high to the north of the province. Values of contamination factor and contamination degree indicated that the metal pollution level was on the order of Zn > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni and that all of the metals belonged to a low or moderate pollution category. Ni and Cu levels derived from natural sources, whereas Cd, Pb, and Zn derived from anthropogenic activities with greater mean concentrations than reference concentrations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran, rmirzaei@kashanu.ac.ir.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24889056

Citation

Mirzaei, Rouhollah, et al. "Levels and Variability of Metals in Soils of the Province of Golestan (Iran)." Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 67, no. 4, 2014, pp. 617-29.
Mirzaei R, Esmaili-Sari A, Hemami MR, et al. Levels and variability of metals in soils of the province of Golestan (Iran). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014;67(4):617-29.
Mirzaei, R., Esmaili-Sari, A., Hemami, M. R., Rezaei, H. R., & Rodríguez Martín, J. A. (2014). Levels and variability of metals in soils of the province of Golestan (Iran). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 67(4), 617-29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-014-0043-5
Mirzaei R, et al. Levels and Variability of Metals in Soils of the Province of Golestan (Iran). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014;67(4):617-29. PubMed PMID: 24889056.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Levels and variability of metals in soils of the province of Golestan (Iran). AU - Mirzaei,Rouhollah, AU - Esmaili-Sari,Abbas, AU - Hemami,Mahmood Reza, AU - Rezaei,Hamid Reza, AU - Rodríguez Martín,José Antonio, Y1 - 2014/06/03/ PY - 2014/02/01/received PY - 2014/04/25/accepted PY - 2014/6/4/entrez PY - 2014/6/4/pubmed PY - 2015/1/22/medline SP - 617 EP - 29 JF - Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology JO - Arch Environ Contam Toxicol VL - 67 IS - 4 N2 - Studying the concentration distribution of metals is necessary for soil pollution monitoring and maintaining environmental quality. To date, very little large-scale research has been performed to investigate metal contamination in developing countries. In this study, the content and spatial distributions of five metals (cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], and zinc [Zn]) were quantified based on 346 topsoil samples from 12 districts in the province of Golestan (northeast [NE] Iran). The concentration levels (mg/kg) of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn varied from 0.02 to 0.36, 9.3 to 93.7, 6.8 to 44, 9.5 to 85.35, and 25 to 417.4, respectively. The average concentrations (mg/kg) obtained were as follows: Cd 0.12 ± 0.07, Cu 23.9 ± 9.07, Ni 34.88 ± 11.59, Pb 15.42 ± 5.81 and Zn 82.08 ± 30.87. Significant differences in the distribution of trace elements among districts were detected. The AzadShahr and BandarGaz districts displayed the highest metal concentrations. Greater metal values were obtained in the central, south, west, and NE areas, although Zn concentration was also high to the north of the province. Values of contamination factor and contamination degree indicated that the metal pollution level was on the order of Zn > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni and that all of the metals belonged to a low or moderate pollution category. Ni and Cu levels derived from natural sources, whereas Cd, Pb, and Zn derived from anthropogenic activities with greater mean concentrations than reference concentrations. SN - 1432-0703 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24889056/Levels_and_variability_of_metals_in_soils_of_the_province_of_Golestan__Iran__ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-014-0043-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -