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Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Jun; 8(6):e2925.PN

Abstract

Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention and treatment of enteric fever.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America; Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America; Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France.Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America; Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24901439

Citation

Arndt, Michael B., et al. "Estimating the Burden of Paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 8, no. 6, 2014, pp. e2925.
Arndt MB, Mosites EM, Tian M, et al. Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(6):e2925.
Arndt, M. B., Mosites, E. M., Tian, M., Forouzanfar, M. H., Mokhdad, A. H., Meller, M., Ochiai, R. L., & Walson, J. L. (2014). Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(6), e2925. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002925
Arndt MB, et al. Estimating the Burden of Paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(6):e2925. PubMed PMID: 24901439.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa. AU - Arndt,Michael B, AU - Mosites,Emily M, AU - Tian,Mu, AU - Forouzanfar,Mohammad H, AU - Mokhdad,Ali H, AU - Meller,Margaret, AU - Ochiai,Rion L, AU - Walson,Judd L, Y1 - 2014/06/05/ PY - 2014/01/22/received PY - 2014/04/19/accepted PY - 2014/6/6/entrez PY - 2014/6/6/pubmed PY - 2015/1/17/medline SP - e2925 EP - e2925 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 8 IS - 6 N2 - Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention and treatment of enteric fever. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24901439/Estimating_the_burden_of_paratyphoid_a_in_Asia_and_Africa_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002925 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -