Methoxypyrazine analysis and influence of viticultural and enological procedures on their levels in grapes, musts, and wines.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015; 55(4):485-502.CR
This review discusses the factors that affect the concentrations of methoxypyrazines (MPs) and the techniques used to analyze MPs in grapes, musts, and wines. MPs are commonly studied pyrazines in food science due to their contribution of aroma and flavor to numerous vegetables such as peas and asparagus. They are described as highly odorous compounds with a very low olfactory threshold. The grape varietals that exhibit green or herbaceous aromas that are characteristic of MPs are predominantly Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc, but include others. The most extensively studied MPs include 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, and 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine. It outlines the significance of methoxypyrazines in grapes, musts, and wines in terms of the concentrations that are capable of contributing their sensory characteristics to wines. This review discusses methods for analyzing MPs including gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (one or two dimension) and high-performance liquid chromatography, the appropriate extraction techniques, and the efficacy of these methods. Additionally, this review explores factors that affect pyrazine content of grapes, must, and wines, such as the effects of different viticultural practices, effects of light exposure and grape maturation, climate, soil, the multi-colored Asian lady beetle and the effects of different vinification processes.