Dynamic analysis of oral Candida carriage, distribution, and antifungal susceptibility in HIV-infected patients during the first year of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Guangxi, China.J Oral Pathol Med. 2014 Oct; 43(9):696-703.JO
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as an effective therapy for immune reconstruction among patients with HIV/AIDS might have influence on oral Candida status. We investigated oral Candida carriage, distribution, and antifungal susceptibility dynamically during the first year of HAART among adult HIV-infected patients in Guangxi, China.
Forty-five adult HIV-infected patients who received their first year HAART in the AIDS clinic of the Guangxi Center for Disease Control (CDC) and 31 healthy individuals were recruited. Clinical information and oral examinations were obtained. Oral rinses taken from patients at baseline, 3, 6, 12 months during HAART, respectively, were cultured, and Candida species were identified following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities were tested by the broth microdilution method.
The oral Candida load decreased gradually in the 45 patients with HIV/AIDS during the first year of HAART (P < 0.050). Among 176 Candida isolates, Candida albicans (114/176) was the predominant species, and Candida parapsilosis (23/62) was the most common non-albicans species. We found the frequency of resistance to fluconazole and itraconazole of Candida isolated from our samples increased (P < 0.05) after 12 months of HAART. In addition, the frequency of C. albicans isolates resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole was on the rise (P < 0.05).
The Candida load decreased with increased CD4(+) T cell counts, and C. albicans was still the prevailing species. Further, a trend toward more frequent in vitro resistance to fluconazole and itraconazole was observed. Our results provide reference for treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis among this population.