Effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study.J Alzheimers Dis. 2014; 42(3):823-31.JA
Oxidative stress and inflammation are two key mechanisms suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) found in fish and fish oil have several biological properties that may be beneficial in AD. However, they may also auto-oxidize and induce in vivo lipid peroxidation.
The objective of this study was to evaluate systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers following oral supplementation of dietary ω-3 FA.
Forty patients with moderate AD were randomized to receive 1.7 g DHA (22:6) and 0.6 g EPA (20:5) or placebo for 6 months. Urinary samples were collected before and after supplementation. The levels of the major F2-isoprostane, 8-iso-PGF2α, a consistent in vivo biomarker of oxidative stress, and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, a major metabolite of PGF2α and biomarker of inflammatory response, were measured.
F2-isoprostane in urine increased in the placebo group after 6 months, but there was no clear difference in treatment effect between supplemented and non-supplemented patients on the urinary levels of F2-isoprostanes and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α. At baseline, the levels of 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α showed negative correlative relationships to ω-3 FAs, and a positive correlation to linoleic acid. 8-iso-PGF2α correlated negatively to the ω-6 FA arachidonic acid.
The findings indicate that supplementation of ω-3 FAs to patients with AD for 6 months does not have a clear effect on free radical-mediated formation of F2-isoprostane or cyclooxygenase-mediated formation of prostaglandin F2α. The correlative relationships to FAs indicate a potential role of FAs in immunoregulation.