Aquaporin expression in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) in freshwater and seawater: challenging the paradigm of intestinal water transport?J Exp Biol. 2014 Sep 01; 217(Pt 17):3108-21.JE
We investigated the salinity-dependent expression dynamics of seven aquaporin paralogs (aqp1a, aqp3a, aqp7, aqp8ab, aqp10a, aqp10b and aqp11a) in several tissues of euryhaline Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). All paralogs except aqp7 and aqp10a had a broad tissue distribution, and several were affected by salinity in both osmoregulatory and non-osmoregulatory tissues. In the intestine, aqp1a, aqp7, aqp8ab and aqp10a decreased upon seawater (SW) acclimation in both long-term acclimated fish and during 1-3 days of the transition period. In the gill, aqp3a was lower and aqp10a higher in SW than in freshwater (FW). In the kidney no aqps were affected by salinity. In the skin, aqp1a and aqp3a were lower in SW than in FW. In the liver, aqp8ab and aqp10a were lower in SW than in FW. Furthermore, six Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α-subunit isoform transcripts were analysed in the intestine but none showed a consistent response to salinity, suggesting that water transport is not regulated at this level. In contrast, mRNA of the Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-)-cotransporter type-2 strongly increased in the intestine in SW compared with FW fish. Using custom-made antibodies, Aqp1a, Aqp8ab and Aqp10a were localized in the apical region of enterocytes of FW fish. Apical staining intensity strongly decreased, vanished or moved to subapical regions, when fish were acclimated to SW, supporting the lower mRNA expression in SW. Western blots confirmed the decrease in Aqp1a and Aqp10a in SW. The strong decrease in aquaporin expression in the intestine of SW fish is surprising, and challenges the paradigm for transepithelial intestinal water absorption in SW fishes.