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Mercury in the marine environment of the Canadian Arctic: review of recent findings.
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15; 509-510:67-90.ST

Abstract

This review summarizes data and information which have been generated on mercury (Hg) in the marine environment of the Canadian Arctic since the previous Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was released in 2003. Much new information has been collected on Hg concentrations in marine water, snow and ice in the Canadian Arctic. The first measurements of methylation rates in Arctic seawater indicate that the water column is an important site for Hg methylation. Arctic marine waters were also found to be a substantial source of gaseous Hg to the atmosphere during the ice-free season. High Hg concentrations have been found in marine snow as a result of deposition following atmospheric mercury depletion events, although much of this Hg is photoreduced and re-emitted back to the atmosphere. The most extensive sampling of marine sediments in the Canadian Arctic was carried out in Hudson Bay where sediment total Hg (THg) concentrations were low compared with other marine regions in the circumpolar Arctic. Mass balance models have been developed to provide quantitative estimates of THg fluxes into and out of the Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay. Several recent studies on Hg biomagnification have improved our understanding of trophic transfer of Hg through marine food webs. Over the past several decades, Hg concentrations have increased in some marine biota, while other populations showed no temporal change. Marine biota also exhibited considerable geographic variation in Hg concentrations with ringed seals, beluga and polar bears from the Beaufort Sea region having higher Hg concentrations compared with other parts of the Canadian Arctic. The drivers of these variable patterns of Hg bioaccumulation, both regionally and temporally, within the Canadian Arctic remain unclear. Further research is needed to identify the underlying processes including the interplay between biogeochemical and food web processes and climate change.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3. Electronic address: birgit.braune@ec.gc.ca.Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3.Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, CP 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville Pavillon Marie-Victorin, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3 J7.Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, PO Box 6000, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada V8L 4B2; Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4.Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada E2L 4L5.Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 3H5.Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4.Centre for Earth Observation Science, 497 Wallace Bldg., University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2.Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, CP 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville Pavillon Marie-Victorin, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3 J7.Centre for Earth Observation Science, 497 Wallace Bldg., University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2.Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6.Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9.Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3.Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N6.Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, PO Box 6000, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada V8L 4B2.Department of Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada B4P 2R6.Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4.Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6.Department of Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada B4P 2R6.Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5.Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4.Centre for Earth Observation Science, 497 Wallace Bldg., University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N6.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24953756

Citation

Braune, Birgit, et al. "Mercury in the Marine Environment of the Canadian Arctic: Review of Recent Findings." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 509-510, 2015, pp. 67-90.
Braune B, Chételat J, Amyot M, et al. Mercury in the marine environment of the Canadian Arctic: review of recent findings. Sci Total Environ. 2015;509-510:67-90.
Braune, B., Chételat, J., Amyot, M., Brown, T., Clayden, M., Evans, M., Fisk, A., Gaden, A., Girard, C., Hare, A., Kirk, J., Lehnherr, I., Letcher, R., Loseto, L., Macdonald, R., Mann, E., McMeans, B., Muir, D., O'Driscoll, N., ... Stern, G. (2015). Mercury in the marine environment of the Canadian Arctic: review of recent findings. The Science of the Total Environment, 509-510, 67-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.133
Braune B, et al. Mercury in the Marine Environment of the Canadian Arctic: Review of Recent Findings. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:67-90. PubMed PMID: 24953756.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mercury in the marine environment of the Canadian Arctic: review of recent findings. AU - Braune,Birgit, AU - Chételat,John, AU - Amyot,Marc, AU - Brown,Tanya, AU - Clayden,Meredith, AU - Evans,Marlene, AU - Fisk,Aaron, AU - Gaden,Ashley, AU - Girard,Catherine, AU - Hare,Alex, AU - Kirk,Jane, AU - Lehnherr,Igor, AU - Letcher,Robert, AU - Loseto,Lisa, AU - Macdonald,Robie, AU - Mann,Erin, AU - McMeans,Bailey, AU - Muir,Derek, AU - O'Driscoll,Nelson, AU - Poulain,Alexandre, AU - Reimer,Ken, AU - Stern,Gary, Y1 - 2014/06/19/ PY - 2013/12/13/received PY - 2014/05/09/revised PY - 2014/05/27/accepted PY - 2014/6/24/entrez PY - 2014/6/24/pubmed PY - 2015/6/6/medline KW - Biogeochemical processes KW - Canadian Arctic KW - Food webs KW - Marine environment KW - Mercury KW - Temporal trends SP - 67 EP - 90 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 509-510 N2 - This review summarizes data and information which have been generated on mercury (Hg) in the marine environment of the Canadian Arctic since the previous Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was released in 2003. Much new information has been collected on Hg concentrations in marine water, snow and ice in the Canadian Arctic. The first measurements of methylation rates in Arctic seawater indicate that the water column is an important site for Hg methylation. Arctic marine waters were also found to be a substantial source of gaseous Hg to the atmosphere during the ice-free season. High Hg concentrations have been found in marine snow as a result of deposition following atmospheric mercury depletion events, although much of this Hg is photoreduced and re-emitted back to the atmosphere. The most extensive sampling of marine sediments in the Canadian Arctic was carried out in Hudson Bay where sediment total Hg (THg) concentrations were low compared with other marine regions in the circumpolar Arctic. Mass balance models have been developed to provide quantitative estimates of THg fluxes into and out of the Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay. Several recent studies on Hg biomagnification have improved our understanding of trophic transfer of Hg through marine food webs. Over the past several decades, Hg concentrations have increased in some marine biota, while other populations showed no temporal change. Marine biota also exhibited considerable geographic variation in Hg concentrations with ringed seals, beluga and polar bears from the Beaufort Sea region having higher Hg concentrations compared with other parts of the Canadian Arctic. The drivers of these variable patterns of Hg bioaccumulation, both regionally and temporally, within the Canadian Arctic remain unclear. Further research is needed to identify the underlying processes including the interplay between biogeochemical and food web processes and climate change. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24953756/Mercury_in_the_marine_environment_of_the_Canadian_Arctic:_review_of_recent_findings_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(14)00825-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -