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Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.
J Acad Nutr Diet 2014; 114(12):1967-73JA

Abstract

Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24953790

Citation

Park, Clara Y., and Heather A. Eicher-Miller. "Iron Deficiency Is Associated With Food Insecurity in Pregnant Females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 114, no. 12, 2014, pp. 1967-73.
Park CY, Eicher-Miller HA. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(12):1967-73.
Park, C. Y., & Eicher-Miller, H. A. (2014). Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(12), pp. 1967-73. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2014.04.025.
Park CY, Eicher-Miller HA. Iron Deficiency Is Associated With Food Insecurity in Pregnant Females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(12):1967-73. PubMed PMID: 24953790.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. AU - Park,Clara Y, AU - Eicher-Miller,Heather A, Y1 - 2014/06/20/ PY - 2013/08/30/received PY - 2014/04/24/accepted PY - 2014/6/24/entrez PY - 2014/6/24/pubmed PY - 2015/1/31/medline KW - Food security KW - Iron deficiency KW - Iron intake KW - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) KW - Pregnancy SP - 1967 EP - 73 JF - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics JO - J Acad Nutr Diet VL - 114 IS - 12 N2 - Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements. SN - 2212-2672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24953790/Iron_deficiency_is_associated_with_food_insecurity_in_pregnant_females_in_the_United_States:_National_Health_and_Nutrition_Examination_Survey_1999_2010_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212-2672(14)00492-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -