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Cigarette smoking and the natural history of age-related macular degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

Abstract

PURPOSE

To examine the association of current cigarette smoking and pack-years smoked with the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to examine the interactions of current smoking and pack-years smoked with complement factor H (CFH, rs1061170) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2, rs10490924) genotype.

DESIGN

A longitudinal population-based study of AMD in a representative American community. Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period.

PARTICIPANTS

A total of 4439 participants in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES).

METHODS

Age-related macular degeneration status was determined from grading retinal photographs. Multi-state models were used to model the relationship of current smoking and pack-years smoked and interactions with CFH and ARMS2 with the incidence and progression of AMD over the entire age range.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Incidence and progression of AMD over a 20-year period and interactions between current smoking and pack-years smoked with CFH and ARMS2 genotype.

RESULTS

The incidence of early AMD over the 20-year period was 24.4%, and the incidence of late AMD was 4.5%. Current smoking was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from minimal to moderate early AMD. A greater number of pack-years smoked was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no AMD to minimal early AMD and from severe early AMD to late AMD. Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked were associated with an increased risk of death. There were no statistically significant multiplicative interactions between current smoking or pack-years smoked and CFH or ARMS2 genotype.

CONCLUSIONS

Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked increase the risk of the progression of AMD. This has important health care implications because smoking is a modifiable behavior.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin. Electronic address: myers@epi.ophth.wisc.edu.

    ,

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

    ,

    Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin; Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

    ,

    Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Genetics and Ophthalmology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

    ,

    Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Genetics and Ophthalmology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

    Source

    Ophthalmology 121:10 2014 Oct pg 1949-55

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Complement Factor H
    Disease Progression
    Female
    Genotype
    Humans
    Incidence
    Longitudinal Studies
    Macular Degeneration
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
    Proteins
    Smoking
    Wisconsin

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24953792

    Citation

    Myers, Chelsea E., et al. "Cigarette Smoking and the Natural History of Age-related Macular Degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study." Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 10, 2014, pp. 1949-55.
    Myers CE, Klein BE, Gangnon R, et al. Cigarette smoking and the natural history of age-related macular degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(10):1949-55.
    Myers, C. E., Klein, B. E., Gangnon, R., Sivakumaran, T. A., Iyengar, S. K., & Klein, R. (2014). Cigarette smoking and the natural history of age-related macular degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 121(10), pp. 1949-55. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.04.040.
    Myers CE, et al. Cigarette Smoking and the Natural History of Age-related Macular Degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(10):1949-55. PubMed PMID: 24953792.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Cigarette smoking and the natural history of age-related macular degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. AU - Myers,Chelsea E, AU - Klein,Barbara E K, AU - Gangnon,Ronald, AU - Sivakumaran,Theru A, AU - Iyengar,Sudha K, AU - Klein,Ronald, Y1 - 2014/06/20/ PY - 2013/11/21/received PY - 2014/02/18/revised PY - 2014/04/25/accepted PY - 2014/6/24/entrez PY - 2014/6/24/pubmed PY - 2014/11/19/medline SP - 1949 EP - 55 JF - Ophthalmology JO - Ophthalmology VL - 121 IS - 10 N2 - PURPOSE: To examine the association of current cigarette smoking and pack-years smoked with the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to examine the interactions of current smoking and pack-years smoked with complement factor H (CFH, rs1061170) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2, rs10490924) genotype. DESIGN: A longitudinal population-based study of AMD in a representative American community. Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4439 participants in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES). METHODS: Age-related macular degeneration status was determined from grading retinal photographs. Multi-state models were used to model the relationship of current smoking and pack-years smoked and interactions with CFH and ARMS2 with the incidence and progression of AMD over the entire age range. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and progression of AMD over a 20-year period and interactions between current smoking and pack-years smoked with CFH and ARMS2 genotype. RESULTS: The incidence of early AMD over the 20-year period was 24.4%, and the incidence of late AMD was 4.5%. Current smoking was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from minimal to moderate early AMD. A greater number of pack-years smoked was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no AMD to minimal early AMD and from severe early AMD to late AMD. Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked were associated with an increased risk of death. There were no statistically significant multiplicative interactions between current smoking or pack-years smoked and CFH or ARMS2 genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked increase the risk of the progression of AMD. This has important health care implications because smoking is a modifiable behavior. SN - 1549-4713 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24953792/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161-6420(14)00394-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -