Protective effects of selenium against cadmium induced hematological disturbances, immunosuppressive, oxidative stress and hepatorenal damage in rats.J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2015 Jan; 29:104-10.JT
Cadmium is a non-essential toxic metal used in industrial process, causes severe risk to human health. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral of fundamental importance for human health. Selenium has antioxidant enzymes roles and is needed for the proper function of the immune system. In this study, the protective effects of selenium against cadmium intoxication in rats have been investigated by monitoring some selective cytokines (IL-1β, TNF α, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ), antioxidant enzymes reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as some selective biochemical markers of liver and kidney functions. Thirty-two rats were divided into four equal groups; the first group was used as a control. Groups 2-4 were treated with selenium (Se; 0.1mg/kg BW), cadmium (Cd; 40mg/L drinking water) and selenium plus cadmium, respectively. Rats were orally administered their relevant doses daily for 30 days. Blood samples were collected from heart puncture at the end of the experiment (30 days) for complete blood picture (CBC) and serum was separated to evaluate the different immunological parameters and biochemical parameters, as well as liver specimens for Cd and Se estimation. Rats in the Cd treated group have a significantly higher hepatic concentration of Cd than in other treated groups. Results revealed that cadmium significantly increased IL-1β, TNF α, IL-6 and IL-10, beside peripheral neutrophils count, while the IFN-γ and lymphocytes were decreased in rat sera. In addition, GSH level, CAT, SOD and GPx activities were significantly decreased while lipid peroxidation (MDA) was increased. Regarding, liver and renal markers, they were significantly increased in the activities of aminotransferases (AST, ALT), urea and creatinine, while total plasma proteins and albumin were significantly decreased. On the other hand, selenium treated group, showed significantly increased IFN-γ, GSH level, CAT, and GPx activities, as well as lymphocyte count while IL-10 was decreased. Selenium in combination with cadmium, significantly improved the elevation of serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF α, IL-10 and malondialdehyde in addition to enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities of GSH, CAT, GPx and SOD. Moreover, selenium has ameliorated the cadmium-induced liver and kidney damage by improving hepatic and renal markers. The results of this investigation demonstrated that selenium has the potential to countermeasure the immunosuppressive as well as hepatic and renal oxidative damage induced by cadmium in rats; selenium has shown promising effects against Cd toxicity.