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Yoga management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: a randomised controlled pilot-trial.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Secondary arm lymphoedema continues to affect at least 20% of women after treatment for breast cancer requiring lifelong professional treatment and self-management. The holistic practice of yoga may offer benefits as an adjunct self-management option. The aim of this small pilot trial was to gain preliminary data to determine the effect of yoga on women with stage one breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL). This paper reports the results for the primary and secondary outcomes.

METHODS

Participants were randomised, after baseline testing, to receive either an 8-week yoga intervention (n = 15), consisting of a weekly 90-minute teacher-led class and a 40-minute daily session delivered by DVD, or to a usual care wait-listed control group (n = 13). Primary outcome measures were: arm volume of lymphoedema measured by circumference and extra-cellular fluid measured by bioimpedance spectroscopy. Secondary outcome measures were: tissue induration measured by tonometry; levels of sensations, pain, fatigue, and their limiting effects all measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and quality of life based on the Lymphoedema Quality of Life Tool (LYMQOL). Measurements were conducted at baseline, week 8 (post-intervention) and week 12 (four weeks after cessation of the intervention).

RESULTS

At week 8, the intervention group had a greater decrease in tissue induration of the affected upper arm compared to the control group (p = 0.050), as well as a greater reduction in the symptom sub-scale for QOL (p = 0.038). There was no difference in arm volume of lymphoedema or extra-cellular fluid between groups at week 8; however, at week 12, arm volume increased more for the intervention group than the control group (p = 0.032).

CONCLUSIONS

An 8-week yoga intervention reduced tissue induration of the affected upper arm and decreased the QOL sub-scale of symptoms. Arm volume of lymphoedema and extra-cellular fluid did not increase. These benefits did not last on cessation of the intervention when arm volume of lymphoedema increased. Further research trials with a longer duration, higher levels of lymphoedema and larger numbers are warranted before definitive conclusions can be made.

Authors+Show Affiliations

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableSchool of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Australia. Andrew.Williams@utas.edu.au.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24980836

Citation

Loudon, Annette, et al. "Yoga Management of Breast Cancer-related Lymphoedema: a Randomised Controlled Pilot-trial." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, 2014, p. 214.
Loudon A, Barnett T, Piller N, et al. Yoga management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: a randomised controlled pilot-trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:214.
Loudon, A., Barnett, T., Piller, N., Immink, M. A., & Williams, A. D. (2014). Yoga management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: a randomised controlled pilot-trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14, p. 214. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-214.
Loudon A, et al. Yoga Management of Breast Cancer-related Lymphoedema: a Randomised Controlled Pilot-trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jul 1;14:214. PubMed PMID: 24980836.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Yoga management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: a randomised controlled pilot-trial. AU - Loudon,Annette, AU - Barnett,Tony, AU - Piller,Neil, AU - Immink,Maarten A, AU - Williams,Andrew D, Y1 - 2014/07/01/ PY - 2013/07/29/received PY - 2014/06/23/accepted PY - 2014/7/2/entrez PY - 2014/7/2/pubmed PY - 2014/10/21/medline SP - 214 EP - 214 JF - BMC complementary and alternative medicine JO - BMC Complement Altern Med VL - 14 N2 - BACKGROUND: Secondary arm lymphoedema continues to affect at least 20% of women after treatment for breast cancer requiring lifelong professional treatment and self-management. The holistic practice of yoga may offer benefits as an adjunct self-management option. The aim of this small pilot trial was to gain preliminary data to determine the effect of yoga on women with stage one breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL). This paper reports the results for the primary and secondary outcomes. METHODS: Participants were randomised, after baseline testing, to receive either an 8-week yoga intervention (n = 15), consisting of a weekly 90-minute teacher-led class and a 40-minute daily session delivered by DVD, or to a usual care wait-listed control group (n = 13). Primary outcome measures were: arm volume of lymphoedema measured by circumference and extra-cellular fluid measured by bioimpedance spectroscopy. Secondary outcome measures were: tissue induration measured by tonometry; levels of sensations, pain, fatigue, and their limiting effects all measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and quality of life based on the Lymphoedema Quality of Life Tool (LYMQOL). Measurements were conducted at baseline, week 8 (post-intervention) and week 12 (four weeks after cessation of the intervention). RESULTS: At week 8, the intervention group had a greater decrease in tissue induration of the affected upper arm compared to the control group (p = 0.050), as well as a greater reduction in the symptom sub-scale for QOL (p = 0.038). There was no difference in arm volume of lymphoedema or extra-cellular fluid between groups at week 8; however, at week 12, arm volume increased more for the intervention group than the control group (p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: An 8-week yoga intervention reduced tissue induration of the affected upper arm and decreased the QOL sub-scale of symptoms. Arm volume of lymphoedema and extra-cellular fluid did not increase. These benefits did not last on cessation of the intervention when arm volume of lymphoedema increased. Further research trials with a longer duration, higher levels of lymphoedema and larger numbers are warranted before definitive conclusions can be made. SN - 1472-6882 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24980836/Yoga_management_of_breast_cancer_related_lymphoedema:_a_randomised_controlled_pilot_trial_ L2 - https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-14-214 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -