Plasma gastrointestinal hormones during spontaneous and induced menstrual cycles.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Jun; 68(6):1160-6.JC
Plasma levels of secretin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SRIH), motilin, and/or pancreatic polypeptide, as well as serum estradiol, progesterone, PRL, LH, FSH, and/or GH were measured during the follicular phase, midcycle, and luteal phase of a spontaneous menstrual cycle in eight women and during ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate/human menopausal gonadotropin and hCG for in vitro fertilization in nine women. Plasma SRIH concentrations were significantly (P less than 0.02) higher in the luteal phase of spontaneous menstrual cycles than in follicular phase and midcycle. Serum GH levels, however, did not change. Plasma motilin concentrations also were higher in the luteal phase than at mid-cycle (P less than 0.04). Plasma secretin, VIP, and pancreatic polypeptide concentrations did not change during the cycle. Throughout the spontaneous menstrual cycle we found significant positive correlations between plasma SRIH and serum progesterone (P less than 0.007; r = 0.5869), plasma motilin and serum progesterone (P less than 0.02; r = 0.5331), plasma secretin and serum estradiol (P less than 0.04; r = 0.4711), and plasma secretin and serum PRL (P less than 0.02; r = 0.5507). During ovarian stimulation both plasma secretin and VIP gradually increased to a peak on cycle days 0 and 1, respectively (day 0 = the day of hCG injection), whereas plasma SRIH did not change. Serum estradiol and PRL increased significantly, and both peaked on cycle day 1. During ovarian stimulation plasma secretin correlated significantly with serum estradiol (P less than 0.00001; r = 0.9333), serum PRL (P less than 0.03; r = 0.6521), and plasma VIP (P less than 0.03; r = 0.6534). In addition, plasma VIP and serum PRL both correlated significantly with serum estradiol (P less than 0.05; r = 0.6024 and P less than 0.04; r = 0.6384, respectively). These results indicate 1) a possible effect of progesterone on the release of SRIH and motilin during the spontaneous menstrual cycle; 2) the unaltered serum GH concentrations in the luteal phase of the spontaneous menstrual cycle despite elevated plasma SRIH levels are probably due to a stimulatory effect of both progesterone and motilin on GH release; and 3) the increase in plasma secretin and VIP concentrations during ovarian stimulation is probably secondary to the concomitant increase in serum estradiol and/or PRL. We suggest that estradiol and/or PRL beyond a certain threshold level stimulate the release of secretin, and possibly also VIP, into plasma.