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Rapid determination of nine parabens and seven other environmental phenols in urine samples of German children and adults.
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014 Nov; 217(8):845-53.IJ

Abstract

We developed a fast, selective and sensitive on-line LC/LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of nine parabens and seven environmental phenols in urine. Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives. Bisphenol A, triclosan, triclocarban, 2-phenylphenol, and benzophenones are used inter alia in disinfectants, sunscreens and in polymers. Some of these substances are suspected endocrine disruptors. Limits of quantification and analytical quality criteria fully met the needs for determining exposure levels occurring in the general population. We analyzed 157 spot urine samples from the general German population (59 females, 39 males and 59 children). For the parabens, we found methyl, ethyl and n-propyl paraben with high detection rates (77-98%), followed by n-butyl (36%), iso-butyl (17%), iso-propyl (3%) and benzyl paraben (3%). We detected no pentyl and heptyl paraben. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 24.5 μg/L; 95th percentile 379 μg/L) followed by ethyl (1.4 μg/L; 35.2 μg/L) and n-propyl paraben (1.2 μg/L; 68.1 μg/L). Other environmental phenols with high detection rates were BPA (95%), triclosan (45%) and benzophenone 1 and 3 (26%). For most of the parabens/environmental phenols we found higher urinary levels in females than in males or children, probably due to differences in (personal care) product use. However, high levels (in the mg/L range) were also observed in children. Exposure to the above substances is occurring worldwide. Differences between countries do seem to exist and might be caused by different product compositions or different use habits. Human metabolism data is urgently needed to extrapolate from urinary biomarker levels to doses actually taken up.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of Ruhr University Bochum (IPA), Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, D-44789 Bochum, Germany.Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of Ruhr University Bochum (IPA), Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, D-44789 Bochum, Germany.Department of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse150, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.Department of Hygiene, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse150, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of Ruhr University Bochum (IPA), Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, D-44789 Bochum, Germany.Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of Ruhr University Bochum (IPA), Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, D-44789 Bochum, Germany. Electronic address: koch@ipa-dguv.de.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25008406

Citation

Moos, Rebecca K., et al. "Rapid Determination of Nine Parabens and Seven Other Environmental Phenols in Urine Samples of German Children and Adults." International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 217, no. 8, 2014, pp. 845-53.
Moos RK, Angerer J, Wittsiepe J, et al. Rapid determination of nine parabens and seven other environmental phenols in urine samples of German children and adults. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014;217(8):845-53.
Moos, R. K., Angerer, J., Wittsiepe, J., Wilhelm, M., Brüning, T., & Koch, H. M. (2014). Rapid determination of nine parabens and seven other environmental phenols in urine samples of German children and adults. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 217(8), 845-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.06.003
Moos RK, et al. Rapid Determination of Nine Parabens and Seven Other Environmental Phenols in Urine Samples of German Children and Adults. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014;217(8):845-53. PubMed PMID: 25008406.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Rapid determination of nine parabens and seven other environmental phenols in urine samples of German children and adults. AU - Moos,Rebecca K, AU - Angerer,Jürgen, AU - Wittsiepe,Jürgen, AU - Wilhelm,Michael, AU - Brüning,Thomas, AU - Koch,Holger M, Y1 - 2014/06/20/ PY - 2014/02/26/received PY - 2014/06/13/revised PY - 2014/06/13/accepted PY - 2014/7/11/entrez PY - 2014/7/11/pubmed PY - 2015/5/27/medline KW - Environmental phenols KW - Human biomonitoring KW - Internal exposure KW - Parabens KW - Urine SP - 845 EP - 53 JF - International journal of hygiene and environmental health JO - Int J Hyg Environ Health VL - 217 IS - 8 N2 - We developed a fast, selective and sensitive on-line LC/LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of nine parabens and seven environmental phenols in urine. Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives. Bisphenol A, triclosan, triclocarban, 2-phenylphenol, and benzophenones are used inter alia in disinfectants, sunscreens and in polymers. Some of these substances are suspected endocrine disruptors. Limits of quantification and analytical quality criteria fully met the needs for determining exposure levels occurring in the general population. We analyzed 157 spot urine samples from the general German population (59 females, 39 males and 59 children). For the parabens, we found methyl, ethyl and n-propyl paraben with high detection rates (77-98%), followed by n-butyl (36%), iso-butyl (17%), iso-propyl (3%) and benzyl paraben (3%). We detected no pentyl and heptyl paraben. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 24.5 μg/L; 95th percentile 379 μg/L) followed by ethyl (1.4 μg/L; 35.2 μg/L) and n-propyl paraben (1.2 μg/L; 68.1 μg/L). Other environmental phenols with high detection rates were BPA (95%), triclosan (45%) and benzophenone 1 and 3 (26%). For most of the parabens/environmental phenols we found higher urinary levels in females than in males or children, probably due to differences in (personal care) product use. However, high levels (in the mg/L range) were also observed in children. Exposure to the above substances is occurring worldwide. Differences between countries do seem to exist and might be caused by different product compositions or different use habits. Human metabolism data is urgently needed to extrapolate from urinary biomarker levels to doses actually taken up. SN - 1618-131X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25008406/Rapid_determination_of_nine_parabens_and_seven_other_environmental_phenols_in_urine_samples_of_German_children_and_adults_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1438-4639(14)00047-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -