Expansion of genotypic diversity and establishment of 2009 H1N1 pandemic-origin internal genes in pigs in China.J Virol 2014; 88(18):10864-74JV
Two-way transmission of influenza viruses between humans and swine has been frequently observed, and the occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pdm/09) demonstrated that swine-origin viruses could facilitate the genesis of a pandemic strain. Although multiple introductions to and reassortment in swine of the pdm/09 virus have been repeatedly reported in both Eurasia and the Americas, its long-term impact on the development of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) has not been systematically explored. Our comprehensive evolutionary studies of the complete genomes of 387 SIVs obtained from 2009 to 2012 by influenza virus surveillance in China revealed 17 reassortant genotypes with pdm/09-origin genes. Even though the entire 2009 pandemic virus and its surface genes cannot persist, its internal genes have become established and are now the predominant lineages in pigs in the region. The main persistent pdm/09-origin reassortant forms had at least five pdm/09-origin internal genes, and their surface genes were primarily of European avian-like (EA) or human H3N2-like SIV origin. These findings represent a marked change in the evolutionary patterns and ecosystem of SIVs in China. It is possible that the pdm/09-origin internal genes are in the process of replacing EA or triple-reassortant-like internal genes. These alterations in the SIV gene pool need to be continually monitored to assess changes in the potential for SIV transmission to humans.
Shortly after the emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdm/09) influenza virus, it was transmitted from humans to pigs and this continues to occur around the world. Many reassortants between pdm/09-origin viruses and enzootic swine influenza viruses (SIVs) have been detected. However, the long-term impact of pdm/09-origin viruses on the SIV gene pool, which could lead to the generation of influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans, has not been systematically examined. From extensive surveillance of SIVs over a 38-month period in southern China, it was found that although neither complete pdm/09 viruses nor their surface genes could persist in pigs, their internal genes did persist. Over the survey period, these internal genes became predominant, potentially replacing those of the enzootic SIV lineages. The altered diversity of the SIV gene pool needs to be closely monitored for changes in the potential for SIV transmission to humans.