Effect of guava leaves on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon.Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014 Sep; 40(1):190-6.FS
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extracts have antiviral and antibacterial activity against shrimp pathogens such as yellow-head virus (YHV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and Vibrio harveyi, which make it a potential water disinfectant for use in shrimp culture. In this study, the safety of guava leaf supplementation in shrimp was evaluated by studying its influence on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon. Six diets containing different levels of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.025% [G1], 0.05% [G2], 0.1% [G3], 0.2% [G4], and 0.4% [G5]) were fed to groups of shrimp (1.576 ± 0.011 g body weight) in triplicate for 56 days. Growth performance (final body weight, WG, PWG, SGR) of shrimp fed guava leaf diets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed on the basal diet. The G1 diet resulted in the highest body weight gain (308.44%), followed by the G2 (295.45%), G3 (283.05%), G5 (281.29%), G4 (276.11%), and finally the basal diet (214.58%). Survival of shrimp in the G1 diet group was higher than that of shrimp in the control and the other experimental groups; however, no statistical differences (P > 0.05) were found. Dietary supplementation with guava leaf improved the activities of prophenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in serum, and of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and lysozyme (LSZ) both in serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp. In the experimental groups, the activities of these enzymes followed a similar pattern of change; they increased initially at low levels of dietary supplementation and then decreased with increasing concentrations of dietary guava leaf. Serum PO and SOD activities in shrimp fed the G1 diet reached 7.50 U ml(-1) and 178.33 U ml(-1), respectively, with PO activity being significantly higher than in controls. In shrimp fed the G1 diet, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than in the controls, reaching 57.32 U g(-1), 23.28 U g(-1), and 19.35 U g(-1) protein, respectively. The highest activities of serum ACP, AKP, LSZ, and of hepatopancreas LSZ, were observed in the G3 diet group. Total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) activity was highest (64.80 U ml(-1)) in the G4 diet group, which was significantly higher than that observed in the control group. These results suggest that dietary guava leaf supplementation could enhance the growth performance and non-specific immune response of P. monodon. Therefore, guava leaf is considered safe for use as a water disinfectant in shrimp culture.