Serum levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products and metabolic syndrome: the Northern Manhattan Study.Metabolism 2014; 63(9):1125-30M
Recent studies have shown a strong link between serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) levels and cardiovascular risk factors and disease. What is less clear is the relationship between metabolic risk factors and sRAGE levels. Here, we tested the hypothesis that lower sRAGE levels may be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an urban multi ethnic population.
From the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), we included 1101 stroke-free participants (mean age: 71 ± 9 years, 60% women, 64% Hispanic, 18% black, 16% white). Serum sRAGE was measured by ELISA. Quantile regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between sRAGE and MetS components and MetS, after adjusting for sociodemographics, smoking status and kidney function.
The median (interquartile) sRAGE was 899 pg/ml (647-1248 pg/ml), 42% had metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of unfavorable metabolic factors was 50% for waist circumference (WC), 81% for blood pressure, 39% for fasting glucose, 35% for reduced high density lipoproteins (HDL), and 23% for triglycerides. After adjustment, the median sRAGE levels were at least 120 pg/ml lower in those who had elevated WC (p<0.0001), blood pressure (p=0.0014), and fasting glucose (p<0.0001), and those who had 2 or more unfavorable metabolic factors. No relationship was seen between sRAGE levels and elevated triglycerides or reduced HDL levels. Interaction and stratified analyses revealed that the association of sRAGE with MetS was more prominent in Hispanics compared to whites, and displaying no association with components of MetS in blacks.
sRAGE levels were mainly associated with MetS factors related to obesity, diabetes and hypertension, and displayed variation with ethnicity in a multi-ethnic population. Further studies of sRAGE, MetS and their relationship to cardiovascular disease are warranted.