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Influences of the neighbourhood food environment on adiposity of low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County: a longitudinal study.
J Epidemiol Community Health 2014; 68(11):1027-33JE

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Few studies have examined the association between the food environment and adiposity in early childhood, a critical time for obesity prevention. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between neighbourhood food environment and adiposity among low-income preschool-aged children in a major metropolitan region in the USA.

METHODS

The study sample was 32 172 low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County who had repeated weight and height measurements collected between ages 2 and 5 years through a federal nutrition assistance programme. We conducted multilevel longitudinal analyses to examine how spatial densities of healthy and unhealthy retail food outlets in the children's neighbourhoods were related to adiposity, as measured by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), while controlling for neighbourhood-level income and education, family income, maternal education, and child's gender and race/ethnicity.

RESULTS

Density of healthy food outlets was associated with mean WHZ at age 3 in a non-linear fashion, with mean WHZ being lowest for those exposed to approximately 0.7 healthy food outlets per square mile and higher for lesser and greater densities. Density of unhealthy food outlets was not associated with child WHZ.

CONCLUSIONS

We found a non-linear relationship between WHZ and density of healthy food outlets. Research aiming to understand the sociobehavioural mechanisms by which the retail food environment influences early childhood obesity development is complex and must consider contextual settings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Community Health Sciences, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, USA.Public Health Foundation Enterprises-Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (PHFE-WIC), Irwindale, California, USA.Department of Biostatistics, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.Department of Health Science, California State Fullerton, Fullerton, California, USA.Department of Community Health Sciences, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, USA.Department of Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.Department of Community Health Sciences, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25012991

Citation

Chaparro, M Pia, et al. "Influences of the Neighbourhood Food Environment On Adiposity of Low-income Preschool-aged Children in Los Angeles County: a Longitudinal Study." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 68, no. 11, 2014, pp. 1027-33.
Chaparro MP, Whaley SE, Crespi CM, et al. Influences of the neighbourhood food environment on adiposity of low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County: a longitudinal study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014;68(11):1027-33.
Chaparro, M. P., Whaley, S. E., Crespi, C. M., Koleilat, M., Nobari, T. Z., Seto, E., & Wang, M. C. (2014). Influences of the neighbourhood food environment on adiposity of low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County: a longitudinal study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 68(11), pp. 1027-33. doi:10.1136/jech-2014-204034.
Chaparro MP, et al. Influences of the Neighbourhood Food Environment On Adiposity of Low-income Preschool-aged Children in Los Angeles County: a Longitudinal Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014;68(11):1027-33. PubMed PMID: 25012991.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Influences of the neighbourhood food environment on adiposity of low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County: a longitudinal study. AU - Chaparro,M Pia, AU - Whaley,Shannon E, AU - Crespi,Catherine M, AU - Koleilat,Maria, AU - Nobari,Tabashir Z, AU - Seto,Edmund, AU - Wang,May C, Y1 - 2014/07/10/ PY - 2014/7/12/entrez PY - 2014/7/12/pubmed PY - 2015/12/15/medline KW - Environmental epidemiology KW - OBESITY KW - PUBLIC HEALTH SP - 1027 EP - 33 JF - Journal of epidemiology and community health JO - J Epidemiol Community Health VL - 68 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between the food environment and adiposity in early childhood, a critical time for obesity prevention. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between neighbourhood food environment and adiposity among low-income preschool-aged children in a major metropolitan region in the USA. METHODS: The study sample was 32 172 low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County who had repeated weight and height measurements collected between ages 2 and 5 years through a federal nutrition assistance programme. We conducted multilevel longitudinal analyses to examine how spatial densities of healthy and unhealthy retail food outlets in the children's neighbourhoods were related to adiposity, as measured by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), while controlling for neighbourhood-level income and education, family income, maternal education, and child's gender and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Density of healthy food outlets was associated with mean WHZ at age 3 in a non-linear fashion, with mean WHZ being lowest for those exposed to approximately 0.7 healthy food outlets per square mile and higher for lesser and greater densities. Density of unhealthy food outlets was not associated with child WHZ. CONCLUSIONS: We found a non-linear relationship between WHZ and density of healthy food outlets. Research aiming to understand the sociobehavioural mechanisms by which the retail food environment influences early childhood obesity development is complex and must consider contextual settings. SN - 1470-2738 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25012991/Influences_of_the_neighbourhood_food_environment_on_adiposity_of_low_income_preschool_aged_children_in_Los_Angeles_County:_a_longitudinal_study_ L2 - http://jech.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=25012991 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -