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The impact of sodium and potassium on hypertension risk.

Abstract

The pathogenic role of sodium surfeit in primary hypertension is widely recognized but that of potassium deficiency usually has been ignored or at best assigned subsidiary status. Weighing the available evidence, we recently proposed that the chief environmental factor in the pathogenesis of primary hypertension and the associated cardiovascular risk is the interaction of the sodium surfeit and potassium deficiency in the body. Here, we present the major evidence highlighting the relationship between high-sodium intake and hypertension. We then examine the blood pressure-lowering effects of potassium in conjunction with the pernicious impact of potassium deficiency on hypertension and cardiovascular risk. We conclude with summarizing recent human trials that have probed the joint effects of sodium and potassium intake on hypertension and its cardiovascular sequelae. The latter studies lend considerable fresh support to the thesis that the interaction of the sodium surfeit and potassium deficiency in the body, rather than either disturbance by itself, is the critical environmental factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX; Renal Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, TX.

    Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA; Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, Boston, MA. Electronic address: nicolaos.madias@steward.org.

    Source

    Seminars in nephrology 34:3 2014 May pg 257-72

    MeSH

    Humans
    Hypertension
    Potassium
    Potassium Deficiency
    Potassium, Dietary
    Risk
    Sodium
    Sodium, Dietary

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25016398

    Citation

    Adrogué, Horacio J., and Nicolaos E. Madias. "The Impact of Sodium and Potassium On Hypertension Risk." Seminars in Nephrology, vol. 34, no. 3, 2014, pp. 257-72.
    Adrogué HJ, Madias NE. The impact of sodium and potassium on hypertension risk. Semin Nephrol. 2014;34(3):257-72.
    Adrogué, H. J., & Madias, N. E. (2014). The impact of sodium and potassium on hypertension risk. Seminars in Nephrology, 34(3), pp. 257-72. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2014.04.003.
    Adrogué HJ, Madias NE. The Impact of Sodium and Potassium On Hypertension Risk. Semin Nephrol. 2014;34(3):257-72. PubMed PMID: 25016398.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The impact of sodium and potassium on hypertension risk. AU - Adrogué,Horacio J, AU - Madias,Nicolaos E, Y1 - 2014/04/18/ PY - 2014/7/14/entrez PY - 2014/7/14/pubmed PY - 2015/4/11/medline KW - Sodium intake KW - cardiovascular risk KW - potassium intake KW - sodium/potassium ratio SP - 257 EP - 72 JF - Seminars in nephrology JO - Semin. Nephrol. VL - 34 IS - 3 N2 - The pathogenic role of sodium surfeit in primary hypertension is widely recognized but that of potassium deficiency usually has been ignored or at best assigned subsidiary status. Weighing the available evidence, we recently proposed that the chief environmental factor in the pathogenesis of primary hypertension and the associated cardiovascular risk is the interaction of the sodium surfeit and potassium deficiency in the body. Here, we present the major evidence highlighting the relationship between high-sodium intake and hypertension. We then examine the blood pressure-lowering effects of potassium in conjunction with the pernicious impact of potassium deficiency on hypertension and cardiovascular risk. We conclude with summarizing recent human trials that have probed the joint effects of sodium and potassium intake on hypertension and its cardiovascular sequelae. The latter studies lend considerable fresh support to the thesis that the interaction of the sodium surfeit and potassium deficiency in the body, rather than either disturbance by itself, is the critical environmental factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. SN - 1558-4488 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25016398/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0270-9295(14)00045-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -