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Pilots' visual scan patterns and situation awareness in flight operations.
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014 Jul; 85(7):708-14.AS

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Situation awareness (SA) is considered an essential prerequisite for safe flying. If the impact of visual scanning patterns on a pilot's situation awareness could be identified in flight operations, then eye-tracking tools could be integrated with flight simulators to improve training efficiency.

METHOD

Participating in this research were 18 qualified, mission-ready fighter pilots. The equipment included high-fidelity and fixed-base type flight simulators and mobile head-mounted eye-tracking devices to record a subject's eye movements and SA while performing air-to-surface tasks.

RESULTS

There were significant differences in pilots' percentage of fixation in three operating phases: preparation (M = 46.09, SD = 14.79), aiming (M = 24.24, SD = 11.03), and release and break-away (M = 33.98, SD = 14.46). Also, there were significant differences in pilots' pupil sizes, which were largest in the aiming phase (M = 27,621, SD = 6390.8), followed by release and break-away (M = 27,173, SD = 5830.46), then preparation (M = 25,710, SD = 6078.79), which was the smallest. Furthermore, pilots with better SA performance showed lower perceived workload (M = 30.60, SD = 17.86), and pilots with poor SA performance showed higher perceived workload (M = 60.77, SD = 12.72). Pilots' percentage of fixation and average fixation duration among five different areas of interest showed significant differences as well.

DISCUSSION

Eye-tracking devices can aid in capturing pilots' visual scan patterns and SA performance, unlike traditional flight simulators. Therefore, integrating eye-tracking devices into the simulator may be a useful method for promoting SA training in flight operations, and can provide in-depth understanding of the mechanism of visual scan patterns and information processing to improve training effectiveness in aviation.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25022158

Citation

Yu, Chung-San, et al. "Pilots' Visual Scan Patterns and Situation Awareness in Flight Operations." Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, vol. 85, no. 7, 2014, pp. 708-14.
Yu CS, Wang EM, Li WC, et al. Pilots' visual scan patterns and situation awareness in flight operations. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014;85(7):708-14.
Yu, C. S., Wang, E. M., Li, W. C., & Braithwaite, G. (2014). Pilots' visual scan patterns and situation awareness in flight operations. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 85(7), 708-14.
Yu CS, et al. Pilots' Visual Scan Patterns and Situation Awareness in Flight Operations. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014;85(7):708-14. PubMed PMID: 25022158.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pilots' visual scan patterns and situation awareness in flight operations. AU - Yu,Chung-San, AU - Wang,Eric Min-Yang, AU - Li,Wen-Chin, AU - Braithwaite,Graham, PY - 2014/7/16/entrez PY - 2014/7/16/pubmed PY - 2014/8/27/medline SP - 708 EP - 14 JF - Aviation, space, and environmental medicine JO - Aviat Space Environ Med VL - 85 IS - 7 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Situation awareness (SA) is considered an essential prerequisite for safe flying. If the impact of visual scanning patterns on a pilot's situation awareness could be identified in flight operations, then eye-tracking tools could be integrated with flight simulators to improve training efficiency. METHOD: Participating in this research were 18 qualified, mission-ready fighter pilots. The equipment included high-fidelity and fixed-base type flight simulators and mobile head-mounted eye-tracking devices to record a subject's eye movements and SA while performing air-to-surface tasks. RESULTS: There were significant differences in pilots' percentage of fixation in three operating phases: preparation (M = 46.09, SD = 14.79), aiming (M = 24.24, SD = 11.03), and release and break-away (M = 33.98, SD = 14.46). Also, there were significant differences in pilots' pupil sizes, which were largest in the aiming phase (M = 27,621, SD = 6390.8), followed by release and break-away (M = 27,173, SD = 5830.46), then preparation (M = 25,710, SD = 6078.79), which was the smallest. Furthermore, pilots with better SA performance showed lower perceived workload (M = 30.60, SD = 17.86), and pilots with poor SA performance showed higher perceived workload (M = 60.77, SD = 12.72). Pilots' percentage of fixation and average fixation duration among five different areas of interest showed significant differences as well. DISCUSSION: Eye-tracking devices can aid in capturing pilots' visual scan patterns and SA performance, unlike traditional flight simulators. Therefore, integrating eye-tracking devices into the simulator may be a useful method for promoting SA training in flight operations, and can provide in-depth understanding of the mechanism of visual scan patterns and information processing to improve training effectiveness in aviation. SN - 0095-6562 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25022158/Pilots'_visual_scan_patterns_and_situation_awareness_in_flight_operations_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -