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Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in the general population.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014 Sep-Oct; 36(5):539-44.GH

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses. The reliability and the validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, a depression screening tool, have not been examined in the general population in China. Thus, this study evaluated the reliability and the validity of the Chinese version of the PHQ-9 in detecting major depression in residents of a Chinese community.

METHODS

A total of 1045 participants from a Shanghai community were enrolled in our study. Participants completed the Chinese versions of the PHQ-9, the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. One hundred participants were randomly selected to complete the PHQ-9 again 2 weeks after the initial assessment. The reliability, the validity and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the PHQ-9 were analyzed.

RESULTS

Cronbach's alpha for the internal consistency reliability of the Chinese version of the PHQ-9 was 0.86 for the entire scale. The correlation coefficient for the 2-week test-retest of the total score was 0.86. The PHQ-9 scale correlated positively with the SDS (r=0.29, p<0.001) and correlated negatively with all subscale scores of the SF-36 (correlation coefficients ranged from -0.11 to -0.47, p<0.001). The area under the curve of the ROC was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-0.97). A cutoff score of 7 or higher on the PHQ-9 had a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.86.

CONCLUSIONS

In the general Chinese population, the Chinese version of the PHQ-9 is a valid and efficient tool for screening depression, with a recommended cutoff score of 7 or more.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.Mental Health Center, Xuhui Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.Mental Health Center, Xuhui Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address: drminzhao@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25023953

Citation

Wang, Wenzheng, et al. "Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in the General Population." General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 36, no. 5, 2014, pp. 539-44.
Wang W, Bian Q, Zhao Y, et al. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in the general population. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014;36(5):539-44.
Wang, W., Bian, Q., Zhao, Y., Li, X., Wang, W., Du, J., Zhang, G., Zhou, Q., & Zhao, M. (2014). Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in the general population. General Hospital Psychiatry, 36(5), 539-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.05.021
Wang W, et al. Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in the General Population. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014 Sep-Oct;36(5):539-44. PubMed PMID: 25023953.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in the general population. AU - Wang,Wenzheng, AU - Bian,Qian, AU - Zhao,Yan, AU - Li,Xu, AU - Wang,Wenwen, AU - Du,Jiang, AU - Zhang,Guofang, AU - Zhou,Qing, AU - Zhao,Min, Y1 - 2014/06/06/ PY - 2014/02/12/received PY - 2014/05/08/revised PY - 2014/05/28/accepted PY - 2014/7/16/entrez PY - 2014/7/16/pubmed PY - 2015/5/12/medline KW - Cut-off KW - Depression KW - PHQ-9 KW - Sensitivity KW - Specificity SP - 539 EP - 44 JF - General hospital psychiatry JO - Gen Hosp Psychiatry VL - 36 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses. The reliability and the validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9, a depression screening tool, have not been examined in the general population in China. Thus, this study evaluated the reliability and the validity of the Chinese version of the PHQ-9 in detecting major depression in residents of a Chinese community. METHODS: A total of 1045 participants from a Shanghai community were enrolled in our study. Participants completed the Chinese versions of the PHQ-9, the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. One hundred participants were randomly selected to complete the PHQ-9 again 2 weeks after the initial assessment. The reliability, the validity and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the PHQ-9 were analyzed. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha for the internal consistency reliability of the Chinese version of the PHQ-9 was 0.86 for the entire scale. The correlation coefficient for the 2-week test-retest of the total score was 0.86. The PHQ-9 scale correlated positively with the SDS (r=0.29, p<0.001) and correlated negatively with all subscale scores of the SF-36 (correlation coefficients ranged from -0.11 to -0.47, p<0.001). The area under the curve of the ROC was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-0.97). A cutoff score of 7 or higher on the PHQ-9 had a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.86. CONCLUSIONS: In the general Chinese population, the Chinese version of the PHQ-9 is a valid and efficient tool for screening depression, with a recommended cutoff score of 7 or more. SN - 1873-7714 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25023953/Reliability_and_validity_of_the_Chinese_version_of_the_Patient_Health_Questionnaire__PHQ_9__in_the_general_population_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0163-8343(14)00155-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -