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Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Sugar-sweetened soda consumption is consistently associated with an increased risk of several chronic inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Whether it plays a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a common autoimmune inflammatory disease, remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE

The aim was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of RA in US women.

DESIGN

We prospectively followed 79,570 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1980-2008) and 107,330 women from the NHS II (1991-2009). Information on sugar-sweetened soda consumption (including regular cola, caffeine-free cola, and other sugar-sweetened carbonated soda) was obtained from a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and approximately every 4 y during follow-up. Incident RA cases were validated by medical record review. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate HRs after adjustment for confounders. Results from both cohorts were pooled by an inverse-variance-weighted, fixed-effects model.

RESULTS

During 3,381,268 person-years of follow-up, 857 incident cases of RA were documented in the 2 cohorts. In the multivariable pooled analyses, we found that women who consumed ≥1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d had a 63% (HR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.004) increased risk of developing seropositive RA compared with those who consumed no sugar-sweetened soda or who consumed <1 serving/mo. When we restricted analyses to those with later RA onset (after age 55 y) in the NHS, the association appeared to be stronger (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.56, 4.46; P-trend < 0.0001). No significant association was found for sugar-sweetened soda and seronegative RA. Diet soda consumption was not significantly associated with risk of RA in the 2 cohorts.

CONCLUSION

Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soda, but not diet soda, is associated with increased risk of seropositive RA in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors.

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    ,

    From the Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy (YH, KHC, DHS, EWK, MA-D, JAS, and BL) and the Channing Division of Network Medicine (FBH and XG), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (FBH).

    ,

    From the Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy (YH, KHC, DHS, EWK, MA-D, JAS, and BL) and the Channing Division of Network Medicine (FBH and XG), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (FBH).

    ,

    From the Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy (YH, KHC, DHS, EWK, MA-D, JAS, and BL) and the Channing Division of Network Medicine (FBH and XG), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (FBH).

    ,

    From the Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy (YH, KHC, DHS, EWK, MA-D, JAS, and BL) and the Channing Division of Network Medicine (FBH and XG), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (FBH).

    ,

    From the Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy (YH, KHC, DHS, EWK, MA-D, JAS, and BL) and the Channing Division of Network Medicine (FBH and XG), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (FBH).

    ,

    From the Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy (YH, KHC, DHS, EWK, MA-D, JAS, and BL) and the Channing Division of Network Medicine (FBH and XG), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (FBH).

    ,

    From the Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy (YH, KHC, DHS, EWK, MA-D, JAS, and BL) and the Channing Division of Network Medicine (FBH and XG), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (FBH).

    ,

    From the Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy (YH, KHC, DHS, EWK, MA-D, JAS, and BL) and the Channing Division of Network Medicine (FBH and XG), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (FBH).

    From the Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy (YH, KHC, DHS, EWK, MA-D, JAS, and BL) and the Channing Division of Network Medicine (FBH and XG), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (FBH).

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Arthritis, Rheumatoid
    Autoantibodies
    Carbonated Beverages
    Cohort Studies
    Dietary Sucrose
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Incidence
    Middle Aged
    Nurses
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Rheumatoid Factor
    Risk Factors
    Self Report
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Observational Study
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25030783

    Citation

    Hu, Yang, et al. "Sugar-sweetened Soda Consumption and Risk of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis in Women." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 100, no. 3, 2014, pp. 959-67.
    Hu Y, Costenbader KH, Gao X, et al. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(3):959-67.
    Hu, Y., Costenbader, K. H., Gao, X., Al-Daabil, M., Sparks, J. A., Solomon, D. H., ... Lu, B. (2014). Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(3), pp. 959-67. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086918.
    Hu Y, et al. Sugar-sweetened Soda Consumption and Risk of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis in Women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(3):959-67. PubMed PMID: 25030783.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women. AU - Hu,Yang, AU - Costenbader,Karen H, AU - Gao,Xiang, AU - Al-Daabil,May, AU - Sparks,Jeffrey A, AU - Solomon,Daniel H, AU - Hu,Frank B, AU - Karlson,Elizabeth W, AU - Lu,Bing, Y1 - 2014/07/16/ PY - 2014/7/18/entrez PY - 2014/7/18/pubmed PY - 2015/2/11/medline SP - 959 EP - 67 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 100 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened soda consumption is consistently associated with an increased risk of several chronic inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Whether it plays a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a common autoimmune inflammatory disease, remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of RA in US women. DESIGN: We prospectively followed 79,570 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1980-2008) and 107,330 women from the NHS II (1991-2009). Information on sugar-sweetened soda consumption (including regular cola, caffeine-free cola, and other sugar-sweetened carbonated soda) was obtained from a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and approximately every 4 y during follow-up. Incident RA cases were validated by medical record review. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate HRs after adjustment for confounders. Results from both cohorts were pooled by an inverse-variance-weighted, fixed-effects model. RESULTS: During 3,381,268 person-years of follow-up, 857 incident cases of RA were documented in the 2 cohorts. In the multivariable pooled analyses, we found that women who consumed ≥1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d had a 63% (HR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.004) increased risk of developing seropositive RA compared with those who consumed no sugar-sweetened soda or who consumed <1 serving/mo. When we restricted analyses to those with later RA onset (after age 55 y) in the NHS, the association appeared to be stronger (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.56, 4.46; P-trend < 0.0001). No significant association was found for sugar-sweetened soda and seronegative RA. Diet soda consumption was not significantly associated with risk of RA in the 2 cohorts. CONCLUSION: Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soda, but not diet soda, is associated with increased risk of seropositive RA in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25030783/Sugar_sweetened_soda_consumption_and_risk_of_developing_rheumatoid_arthritis_in_women_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.114.086918 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -