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Coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in travelers.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2014 Oct; 27(5):411-7.CO

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is currently the focus of global attention. In this review, we describe virological, clinical, epidemiological features and interim travel advice and guidelines regarding MERS-CoV. We compare and contrast these with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

RECENT FINDINGS

MERS-CoV is a novel β CoV that causes a spectrum of clinical illness from asymptomatic to the rapidly fatal disease mainly in those with comorbid conditions. Epidemiological and genomic studies show zoonotic transmission to humans from camels and possibly bats. In contrast to the SARS-CoV pandemic, very limited global spread of fatal MERS-CoV has occurred outside the Arabian Peninsula. Although mainly currently restricted to Middle Eastern countries, MERS-CoV was reported from at least 10 other countries in Europe, Asia and the United States. All primary cases have been linked to travel to the Middle East. Nosocomial transmission of MERS-CoV has occurred because of poor infection control measures. Specific molecular diagnostic tests are available. Currently, there are no specific drugs for prevention or treatment for MERS-CoV and vaccine development is in the early stages. Advice and guidance for travelers to the Middle East are updated regularly by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

SUMMARY

Like SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV threatens global health security. All physicians and travelers to the Middle East should be aware of the new threat caused by MERS-CoV and follow CDC and WHO guidelines. Those who develop ill health during their trip or soon after their return should seek medical care.

Authors+Show Affiliations

aGlobal Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine, Ministry of Health bCollege of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Aarabia cDepartment of Infection, Division of Infection and Immunity, Centre for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University College London Hospitals, London, UK dJohns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia eIndiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25033169

Citation

Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A., et al. "Coronaviruses: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Travelers." Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 27, no. 5, 2014, pp. 411-7.
Al-Tawfiq JA, Zumla A, Memish ZA. Coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in travelers. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2014;27(5):411-7.
Al-Tawfiq, J. A., Zumla, A., & Memish, Z. A. (2014). Coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in travelers. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 27(5), 411-7. https://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000089
Al-Tawfiq JA, Zumla A, Memish ZA. Coronaviruses: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Travelers. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2014;27(5):411-7. PubMed PMID: 25033169.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in travelers. AU - Al-Tawfiq,Jaffar A, AU - Zumla,Alimuddin, AU - Memish,Ziad A, PY - 2014/7/18/entrez PY - 2014/7/18/pubmed PY - 2015/5/13/medline SP - 411 EP - 7 JF - Current opinion in infectious diseases JO - Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. VL - 27 IS - 5 N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is currently the focus of global attention. In this review, we describe virological, clinical, epidemiological features and interim travel advice and guidelines regarding MERS-CoV. We compare and contrast these with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). RECENT FINDINGS: MERS-CoV is a novel β CoV that causes a spectrum of clinical illness from asymptomatic to the rapidly fatal disease mainly in those with comorbid conditions. Epidemiological and genomic studies show zoonotic transmission to humans from camels and possibly bats. In contrast to the SARS-CoV pandemic, very limited global spread of fatal MERS-CoV has occurred outside the Arabian Peninsula. Although mainly currently restricted to Middle Eastern countries, MERS-CoV was reported from at least 10 other countries in Europe, Asia and the United States. All primary cases have been linked to travel to the Middle East. Nosocomial transmission of MERS-CoV has occurred because of poor infection control measures. Specific molecular diagnostic tests are available. Currently, there are no specific drugs for prevention or treatment for MERS-CoV and vaccine development is in the early stages. Advice and guidance for travelers to the Middle East are updated regularly by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). SUMMARY: Like SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV threatens global health security. All physicians and travelers to the Middle East should be aware of the new threat caused by MERS-CoV and follow CDC and WHO guidelines. Those who develop ill health during their trip or soon after their return should seek medical care. SN - 1473-6527 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25033169/Coronaviruses:_severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus_and_Middle_East_respiratory_syndrome_coronavirus_in_travelers_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000089 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -