Zinc bioaccumulation and ionoregulatory impacts in Fundulus heteroclitus exposed to sublethal waterborne zinc at different salinities.Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014 Nov; 166:96-104.CB
Exposure of Fundulus heteroclitus to an environmentally relevant Zn concentration (500 μg L⁻¹) at different salinities (0, 3.5, 10.5, and 35 ppt) revealed the following effects: (i) plasma [Zn] doubled after exposure at 0 ppt, a response which was eliminated at 35 ppt. Tissue [Zn] also increased in gill, liver, intestine, and carcass at 0 ppt. (ii) Both branchial and intestinal Ca2⁺ ATPase activities decreased in response to Zn at 0 ppt and were elevated at 35 ppt. Plasma [Ca] decreased by 50% at 0 ppt and by 30% at 3.5 ppt and increased by 20% at 35 ppt. Gill [Ca] decreased by 35% at 0 ppt and increased by about 30% at all higher salinities. (iii) Branchial Na⁺,K⁺ ATPase activity decreased by 50% at 0 ppt, increased by 30% and 90% at 10.5 and 35 ppt respectively. Intestinal Na⁺,K⁺ ATPase activity was reduced by 30% at 0 ppt. (iv) Plasma [Na] decreased by 30% at 0 ppt in Zn-exposed. Zn exposure also disturbed the homeostasis of tissue cations (Na⁺, K⁺, Ca⁺⁺, Mg⁺⁺) in a tissue-specific and salinity-dependent manner. (v) Drinking rate was not altered by Zn exposure. In toxicity tests, acute Zn lethality (96-h LC50) increased in a close to linear fashion from 9.8 mg L⁻¹ at 0 ppt to 75.0 mg L⁻¹ at 35 ppt. We conclude that sublethal Zn exposure causes pathological changes in both Ca⁺⁺ and Na⁺ homeostases, and that increasing salinity exerts protective effects against both sublethal and lethal Zn toxicities.