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Depressive symptoms and body mass index: co-morbidity and direction of association in a British birth cohort followed over 50 years.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

An unhealthy body mass index (BMI) has been associated with depression but the direction of association is uncertain. Our aim was to estimate the co-morbidity and direction of association between BMI and depressive symptoms at several ages, from childhood to mid-adulthood.

METHOD

The data were from 18,558 individuals born in 1 week in March 1958, in England, Scotland and Wales, with follow-up at ages 7, 11, 16, 23, 33, 42, 45 and 50 years. Depression (scores>or=90th percentile) was identified from child/adolescent (teacher questionnaires) and adult (self-complete questionnaires and clinical interview) measures. BMI (kg/m2) measured in child/adolescence and adulthood was classified as underweight, normal, overweight or obese.

RESULTS

In cross-sectional analyses, obesity and underweight (not overweight) from 11 to 45 years were associated respectively with 1.3-2.1 and 1.5-2.3 times the risk of depression compared with normal weight. Using the time-lagged generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach, we tested (a) whether underweight or obesity at prior ages (7 to 45 years) predicted subsequent risk of depression (11 to 50 years), adjusting for baseline depression; and (b) whether depression at prior ages (7 to 42 years) predicted subsequent risk of underweight or obesity (11 to 45 years), adjusting for baseline BMI. In longitudinal analyses, underweight predicted subsequent depression in both sexes [odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.40] and depression predicted subsequent underweight in males only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.23). Obesity predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in females only (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.14-1.56), but depression did not predict obesity.

CONCLUSIONS

Clinicians should consider screening routinely for depression patients with unhealthy BMI, namely underweight and obesity, and vice versa.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health,University College London,UK.

    ,

    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health,University College London,UK.

    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health,University College London,UK.

    Source

    Psychological medicine 44:12 2014 Sep pg 2641-52

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Body Mass Index
    Child
    Comorbidity
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Depression
    England
    Female
    Humans
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Obesity
    Risk
    Scotland
    Thinness
    Wales
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25055177

    Citation

    Geoffroy, M-C, et al. "Depressive Symptoms and Body Mass Index: Co-morbidity and Direction of Association in a British Birth Cohort Followed Over 50 Years." Psychological Medicine, vol. 44, no. 12, 2014, pp. 2641-52.
    Geoffroy MC, Li L, Power C. Depressive symptoms and body mass index: co-morbidity and direction of association in a British birth cohort followed over 50 years. Psychol Med. 2014;44(12):2641-52.
    Geoffroy, M. C., Li, L., & Power, C. (2014). Depressive symptoms and body mass index: co-morbidity and direction of association in a British birth cohort followed over 50 years. Psychological Medicine, 44(12), pp. 2641-52. doi:10.1017/S0033291714000142.
    Geoffroy MC, Li L, Power C. Depressive Symptoms and Body Mass Index: Co-morbidity and Direction of Association in a British Birth Cohort Followed Over 50 Years. Psychol Med. 2014;44(12):2641-52. PubMed PMID: 25055177.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Depressive symptoms and body mass index: co-morbidity and direction of association in a British birth cohort followed over 50 years. AU - Geoffroy,M-C, AU - Li,L, AU - Power,C, PY - 2014/7/24/entrez PY - 2014/7/24/pubmed PY - 2015/10/22/medline SP - 2641 EP - 52 JF - Psychological medicine JO - Psychol Med VL - 44 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: An unhealthy body mass index (BMI) has been associated with depression but the direction of association is uncertain. Our aim was to estimate the co-morbidity and direction of association between BMI and depressive symptoms at several ages, from childhood to mid-adulthood. METHOD: The data were from 18,558 individuals born in 1 week in March 1958, in England, Scotland and Wales, with follow-up at ages 7, 11, 16, 23, 33, 42, 45 and 50 years. Depression (scores>or=90th percentile) was identified from child/adolescent (teacher questionnaires) and adult (self-complete questionnaires and clinical interview) measures. BMI (kg/m2) measured in child/adolescence and adulthood was classified as underweight, normal, overweight or obese. RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses, obesity and underweight (not overweight) from 11 to 45 years were associated respectively with 1.3-2.1 and 1.5-2.3 times the risk of depression compared with normal weight. Using the time-lagged generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach, we tested (a) whether underweight or obesity at prior ages (7 to 45 years) predicted subsequent risk of depression (11 to 50 years), adjusting for baseline depression; and (b) whether depression at prior ages (7 to 42 years) predicted subsequent risk of underweight or obesity (11 to 45 years), adjusting for baseline BMI. In longitudinal analyses, underweight predicted subsequent depression in both sexes [odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.40] and depression predicted subsequent underweight in males only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.23). Obesity predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in females only (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.14-1.56), but depression did not predict obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider screening routinely for depression patients with unhealthy BMI, namely underweight and obesity, and vice versa. SN - 1469-8978 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25055177/Depressive_symptoms_and_body_mass_index:_co_morbidity_and_direction_of_association_in_a_British_birth_cohort_followed_over_50_years_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0033291714000142/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -