Lead detection using micro/nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry.Talanta. 2014 Oct; 128:132-40.T
Monitoring heavy metal ion levels in water is essential for human health and safety. Electroanalytical techniques have presented important features to detect toxic trace heavy metals in the environment due to their high sensitivity associated with their easy operational procedures. Square-wave voltammetry is a powerful electrochemical technique that may be applied to both electrokinetic and analytical measurements, and the analysis of the characteristic parameters of this technique also enables the mechanism and kinetic evaluation of the electrochemical process under study. In this work, we present a complete optimized study on the heavy metal detection using diamond electrodes. It was analyzed the influence of the morphology characteristics as well as the doping level on micro/nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond films by means of square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) technique. The SWASV parameters were optimized for all films, considering that their kinetic response is dependent on the morphology and/or doping level. The films presented reversible results for the Lead [Pb (II)] system studied. The Pb (II) analysis was performed in ammonium acetate buffer at pH 4.5, varying the lead concentration in the range from 1 to 10 μg L(-1). The analytical responses were obtained for the four electrodes. However, the best low limit detection and reproducibility was found for boron doped nanocrystalline diamond electrodes (BDND) doped with 2000 mg L(-1) in B/C ratio.