Relationship between cystatin C and metabolic syndrome among Chinese premenopausal and postmenopausal women without recognized chronic kidney disease.Menopause. 2015 Feb; 22(2):217-23.M
Although studies have shown that elevated cystatin C (Cys-C) levels are associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general population, few studies have examined the relationship between serum Cys-C levels and MetS, stratified by menopause status, among women in China. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the relationship between Cys-C levels and MetS in Chinese premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data of 1,428 Chinese community-dwelling women who participated in the annual health checkup. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between Cys-C levels and MetS. One-way analysis of variance, followed by posttest for linear trends, was performed to evaluate the relationships between Cys-C levels and the number of MetS components. Ordinal regression analysis was used to determine whether menopause status and MetS components contribute to elevated levels of Cys-C.
The mean level of Cys-C was significantly higher in women with MetS than in those without MetS among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women, showing a progressive increase (P for trend < 0.001) in parallel with the progressive increment in the number of MetS components in all women. Higher Cys-C levels were found to be associated with the presence of MetS after adjusting for age, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate in all women. The higher odds ratio changed little, even after further adjustment for serum blood nitrogen, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, drinking status, and smoking status. Elevated Cys-C level was significantly associated with postmenopause status (P = 0.007), increased waist circumference (P = 0.006), and elevated blood pressure (P = 0.025).
Higher serum Cys-C levels are positively and independently associated with the presence of MetS in Chinese premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Elevated Cys-C levels are significantly associated with postmenopause status.