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Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction.
Ann Bot. 2014 Oct; 114(6):1319-26.AB

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples.

METHODS

Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined.

KEY RESULTS

Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones.

CONCLUSIONS

Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related to their rhamnogalacturonan I contents and integrity, and, to a lesser extent, to the length of their homogalacturonan domains.

Authors+Show Affiliations

INRA, UR1268 Biopolymères Interactions Assemblages, 44300 Nantes, France.CP Kelco ApS., Ved Banen 16, DK-4623 Lille Skensved, Denmark University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, DK-1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark.INRA, UR1268 Biopolymères Interactions Assemblages, 44300 Nantes, France.CP Kelco ApS., Ved Banen 16, DK-4623 Lille Skensved, Denmark.INRA, UR1268 Biopolymères Interactions Assemblages, 44300 Nantes, France marie-christine.ralet@nantes.inra.fr.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25081519

Citation

Kaya, Merve, et al. "Characterization of Citrus Pectin Samples Extracted Under Different Conditions: Influence of Acid Type and pH of Extraction." Annals of Botany, vol. 114, no. 6, 2014, pp. 1319-26.
Kaya M, Sousa AG, Crépeau MJ, et al. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction. Ann Bot. 2014;114(6):1319-26.
Kaya, M., Sousa, A. G., Crépeau, M. J., Sørensen, S. O., & Ralet, M. C. (2014). Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction. Annals of Botany, 114(6), 1319-26. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcu150
Kaya M, et al. Characterization of Citrus Pectin Samples Extracted Under Different Conditions: Influence of Acid Type and pH of Extraction. Ann Bot. 2014;114(6):1319-26. PubMed PMID: 25081519.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction. AU - Kaya,Merve, AU - Sousa,António G, AU - Crépeau,Marie-Jeanne, AU - Sørensen,Susanne O, AU - Ralet,Marie-Christine, Y1 - 2014/07/31/ PY - 2014/8/2/entrez PY - 2014/8/2/pubmed PY - 2015/6/20/medline KW - Citrus peel KW - HG KW - Pectin KW - RGI KW - RGII KW - Rutaceae KW - grapefruit KW - homogalacturonan KW - industrial extraction KW - lemon KW - lime KW - orange KW - plant cell wall polysaccharide KW - rhamnogalacturonan SP - 1319 EP - 26 JF - Annals of botany JO - Ann. Bot. VL - 114 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. METHODS: Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction) and on a laboratory scale (grams; mild oxalic acid extraction). Pectin composition (acidic and neutral sugars) and physicochemical properties (molar mass and intrinsic viscosity) were determined. KEY RESULTS: Oxalic acid extraction allowed the recovery of pectin samples of high molecular weight. Mild oxalic acid-extracted pectins were rich in long homogalacturonan stretches and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches with conserved side chains. Nitric acid-extracted pectins exhibited lower molecular weights and contained rhamnogalacturonan I stretches encompassing few and/or short side chains. Grapefruit pectin was found to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. CONCLUSIONS: Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related to their rhamnogalacturonan I contents and integrity, and, to a lesser extent, to the length of their homogalacturonan domains. SN - 1095-8290 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25081519/Characterization_of_citrus_pectin_samples_extracted_under_different_conditions:_influence_of_acid_type_and_pH_of_extraction_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/aob/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/aob/mcu150 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -