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Urinary sodium excretion and dietary sources of sodium intake in Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e104018.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion.

METHODS

This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits.

RESULTS

The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8 ± 3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion.

CONCLUSIONS

Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine &Therapeutics, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR, China.Division of Epidemiology, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR, China.Department of Medicine &Therapeutics, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR, China.Department of Medicine &Therapeutics, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR, China.Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR, China.Department of Medicine &Therapeutics, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25083775

Citation

Liu, Zhao-Min, et al. "Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women With Prehypertension." PloS One, vol. 9, no. 8, 2014, pp. e104018.
Liu ZM, Ho SC, Tang N, et al. Urinary sodium excretion and dietary sources of sodium intake in Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e104018.
Liu, Z. M., Ho, S. C., Tang, N., Chan, R., Chen, Y. M., & Woo, J. (2014). Urinary sodium excretion and dietary sources of sodium intake in Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension. PloS One, 9(8), e104018. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104018
Liu ZM, et al. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women With Prehypertension. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e104018. PubMed PMID: 25083775.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Urinary sodium excretion and dietary sources of sodium intake in Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension. AU - Liu,Zhao-Min, AU - Ho,Suzanne C, AU - Tang,Nelson, AU - Chan,Ruth, AU - Chen,Yu-Ming, AU - Woo,Jean, Y1 - 2014/08/01/ PY - 2014/02/11/received PY - 2014/07/07/accepted PY - 2014/8/2/entrez PY - 2014/8/2/pubmed PY - 2015/11/17/medline SP - e104018 EP - e104018 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 9 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND: Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. RESULTS: The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8 ± 3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25083775/Urinary_sodium_excretion_and_dietary_sources_of_sodium_intake_in_Chinese_postmenopausal_women_with_prehypertension_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104018 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -