Clinical insights into use of apomorphine in Parkinson's disease: tools for clinicians.Neurodegener Dis Manag 2014; 4(3):271-82ND
Apomorphine was introduced before the era of levodopa as a treatment for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). A number of practical obstacles were to be solved before a wider use of the drug was possible. Today, however, the drug is probably still underutilized. Apomorphine is a strong nonergoline D1 and D2 receptor agonist with a dopaminergic effect comparable with levodopa. In this review motor and non-motor indications for intermittent injections and subcutaneous apomorphine infusions are listed. The reduction of 'off' periods is more than 50% on infusion therapy and if monotherapy is achieved a significant reduction of pre-existing levodopainduced dyskinesias is seen. The aim of this review is to give practical insight into apomorphine treatment, highlighting side effects, and complications and device-related problems are discussed with advice on how to prevent or handle these, should they occur. A number of practical points including the apomorphine test, requirements of the clinical setting, how to increase adherence and troubleshooting are added.