Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Soda consumption and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Sep; 100(3):953-8.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The frequency of soda consumption remains high in the United States. Soda consumption has been associated with poor bone health in children, but few studies have examined this relation in adults, and to our knowledge, no study has examined the relation of soda consumption with risk of hip fractures.

OBJECTIVE

We examined the association of soda, including specific types of soda, and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women.

DESIGN

An analysis was conducted in postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study cohort (n = 73,572). Diet was assessed at baseline by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and updated approximately every 4 y. In ≤30 y of follow-up, we identified 1873 incident hip fractures. We computed RRs for hip fractures by the amount of soda consumption by using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders.

RESULTS

In multivariable models, each additional serving of total soda per day was associated with a significant 14% increased risk of hip fracture (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.23). The attributable risk in our cohort for total soda consumption was 12.5%. Risk was significantly elevated in consumers of both regular soda (RR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.38) and diet soda (RR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21) and also did not significantly differ between colas and noncolas or sodas with or without caffeine. The association between soda and hip fractures did not differ by body mass index or diagnosis of diabetes.

CONCLUSION

Increased soda consumption of all types may be associated with increased risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women; however, a clear mechanism was not apparent on the basis of these observational data.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Departments of Epidemiology (FG, JNK, WCW, and MHA), Nutrition (WCW, TTF), and Biostatistics (BR), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; the Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA (TTF); the Channing Division of Network Medicine (DF, FG, BR, and WCW), the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy (JNK), Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (MHA).From the Departments of Epidemiology (FG, JNK, WCW, and MHA), Nutrition (WCW, TTF), and Biostatistics (BR), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; the Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA (TTF); the Channing Division of Network Medicine (DF, FG, BR, and WCW), the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy (JNK), Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (MHA).From the Departments of Epidemiology (FG, JNK, WCW, and MHA), Nutrition (WCW, TTF), and Biostatistics (BR), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; the Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA (TTF); the Channing Division of Network Medicine (DF, FG, BR, and WCW), the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy (JNK), Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (MHA).From the Departments of Epidemiology (FG, JNK, WCW, and MHA), Nutrition (WCW, TTF), and Biostatistics (BR), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; the Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA (TTF); the Channing Division of Network Medicine (DF, FG, BR, and WCW), the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy (JNK), Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (MHA).From the Departments of Epidemiology (FG, JNK, WCW, and MHA), Nutrition (WCW, TTF), and Biostatistics (BR), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; the Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA (TTF); the Channing Division of Network Medicine (DF, FG, BR, and WCW), the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy (JNK), Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (MHA).From the Departments of Epidemiology (FG, JNK, WCW, and MHA), Nutrition (WCW, TTF), and Biostatistics (BR), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; the Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA (TTF); the Channing Division of Network Medicine (DF, FG, BR, and WCW), the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy (JNK), Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (MHA).From the Departments of Epidemiology (FG, JNK, WCW, and MHA), Nutrition (WCW, TTF), and Biostatistics (BR), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; the Department of Nutrition, Simmons College, Boston, MA (TTF); the Channing Division of Network Medicine (DF, FG, BR, and WCW), the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy (JNK), Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (MHA).

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25099544

Citation

Fung, Teresa T., et al. "Soda Consumption and Risk of Hip Fractures in Postmenopausal Women in the Nurses' Health Study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 100, no. 3, 2014, pp. 953-8.
Fung TT, Arasaratnam MH, Grodstein F, et al. Soda consumption and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(3):953-8.
Fung, T. T., Arasaratnam, M. H., Grodstein, F., Katz, J. N., Rosner, B., Willett, W. C., & Feskanich, D. (2014). Soda consumption and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 100(3), 953-8. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.083352
Fung TT, et al. Soda Consumption and Risk of Hip Fractures in Postmenopausal Women in the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(3):953-8. PubMed PMID: 25099544.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Soda consumption and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. AU - Fung,Teresa T, AU - Arasaratnam,Meredith H, AU - Grodstein,Francine, AU - Katz,Jeffrey N, AU - Rosner,Bernard, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Feskanich,Diane, Y1 - 2014/08/06/ PY - 2014/8/8/entrez PY - 2014/8/8/pubmed PY - 2015/2/11/medline SP - 953 EP - 8 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 100 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: The frequency of soda consumption remains high in the United States. Soda consumption has been associated with poor bone health in children, but few studies have examined this relation in adults, and to our knowledge, no study has examined the relation of soda consumption with risk of hip fractures. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of soda, including specific types of soda, and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: An analysis was conducted in postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study cohort (n = 73,572). Diet was assessed at baseline by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and updated approximately every 4 y. In ≤30 y of follow-up, we identified 1873 incident hip fractures. We computed RRs for hip fractures by the amount of soda consumption by using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable models, each additional serving of total soda per day was associated with a significant 14% increased risk of hip fracture (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.23). The attributable risk in our cohort for total soda consumption was 12.5%. Risk was significantly elevated in consumers of both regular soda (RR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.38) and diet soda (RR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21) and also did not significantly differ between colas and noncolas or sodas with or without caffeine. The association between soda and hip fractures did not differ by body mass index or diagnosis of diabetes. CONCLUSION: Increased soda consumption of all types may be associated with increased risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women; however, a clear mechanism was not apparent on the basis of these observational data. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25099544/Soda_consumption_and_risk_of_hip_fractures_in_postmenopausal_women_in_the_Nurses'_Health_Study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.114.083352 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -