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Temporal association of infant immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the ecology of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal colonisation in a rural South African community.
Vaccine. 2014 Sep 22; 32(42):5520-30.V

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Immunisation of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) may affect the bacterial-ecology of the nasopharynx, including colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of infant PCV-immunisation on the nasopharyngeal ecology of these potentially pathogenic bacteria in a rural African setting.

METHODS

Two cross sectional surveys were undertaken from May to October in 2009 (Period-1) which coincided with the introduction of 7-valent PCV (PCV7) and in May-October 2011 (Period-2). Consenting household members, where there was a child <2 years of age in residence, had nasopharyngeal swabs undertaken for culture.

RESULTS

From Period-1 to Period-2 in children 0-2 years and 3-12 years, prevalence of overall S. pneumoniae colonisation decreased from 74.9% to 67.0% (p<0.001) and H. influenzae declined among children 3-12 years (55.1-45.3%, p<0.001) but not among those <2 years. The prevalence of S. aureus remained unchanged in all children. Competitive associations were found between S. pneumoniae and S. aureus and between H. influenzae and S. aureus among children. In individuals >12 years, the prevalence of colonisation decreased from 11.2% to 6.8%, 16.7% to 8.8% and 31.2% to 23.7% for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and S. aureus, respectively; p<0.001 for all comparions. Synergistic relationships for S. aureus with H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were observed in both periods among this group.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation: Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation: Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation: Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD): A Division of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Sandringham, South Africa.Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD): A Division of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Sandringham, South Africa.Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation: Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD): A Division of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), Sandringham, South Africa. Electronic address: shabirm@nicd.ac.za.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25101982

Citation

Nzenze, S A., et al. "Temporal Association of Infant Immunisation With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine On the Ecology of Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Haemophilus Influenzae and Staphylococcus Aureus Nasopharyngeal Colonisation in a Rural South African Community." Vaccine, vol. 32, no. 42, 2014, pp. 5520-30.
Nzenze SA, Shiri T, Nunes MC, et al. Temporal association of infant immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the ecology of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal colonisation in a rural South African community. Vaccine. 2014;32(42):5520-30.
Nzenze, S. A., Shiri, T., Nunes, M. C., Klugman, K. P., Kahn, K., Twine, R., de Gouveia, L., von Gottberg, A., & Madhi, S. A. (2014). Temporal association of infant immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the ecology of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal colonisation in a rural South African community. Vaccine, 32(42), 5520-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.06.091
Nzenze SA, et al. Temporal Association of Infant Immunisation With Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine On the Ecology of Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Haemophilus Influenzae and Staphylococcus Aureus Nasopharyngeal Colonisation in a Rural South African Community. Vaccine. 2014 Sep 22;32(42):5520-30. PubMed PMID: 25101982.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Temporal association of infant immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the ecology of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal colonisation in a rural South African community. AU - Nzenze,S A, AU - Shiri,T, AU - Nunes,M C, AU - Klugman,K P, AU - Kahn,K, AU - Twine,R, AU - de Gouveia,L, AU - von Gottberg,A, AU - Madhi,S A, Y1 - 2014/08/04/ PY - 2014/02/09/received PY - 2014/06/20/revised PY - 2014/06/23/accepted PY - 2014/8/8/entrez PY - 2014/8/8/pubmed PY - 2015/4/4/medline KW - Haemophilus influenzae KW - Infant immunisation KW - Nasopharyngeal colonisation KW - Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine KW - Staphylococcus aureus KW - Streptococcus pneumoniae SP - 5520 EP - 30 JF - Vaccine JO - Vaccine VL - 32 IS - 42 N2 - BACKGROUND: Immunisation of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) may affect the bacterial-ecology of the nasopharynx, including colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of infant PCV-immunisation on the nasopharyngeal ecology of these potentially pathogenic bacteria in a rural African setting. METHODS: Two cross sectional surveys were undertaken from May to October in 2009 (Period-1) which coincided with the introduction of 7-valent PCV (PCV7) and in May-October 2011 (Period-2). Consenting household members, where there was a child <2 years of age in residence, had nasopharyngeal swabs undertaken for culture. RESULTS: From Period-1 to Period-2 in children 0-2 years and 3-12 years, prevalence of overall S. pneumoniae colonisation decreased from 74.9% to 67.0% (p<0.001) and H. influenzae declined among children 3-12 years (55.1-45.3%, p<0.001) but not among those <2 years. The prevalence of S. aureus remained unchanged in all children. Competitive associations were found between S. pneumoniae and S. aureus and between H. influenzae and S. aureus among children. In individuals >12 years, the prevalence of colonisation decreased from 11.2% to 6.8%, 16.7% to 8.8% and 31.2% to 23.7% for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and S. aureus, respectively; p<0.001 for all comparions. Synergistic relationships for S. aureus with H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae were observed in both periods among this group. SN - 1873-2518 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25101982/Temporal_association_of_infant_immunisation_with_pneumococcal_conjugate_vaccine_on_the_ecology_of_Streptococcus_pneumoniae_Haemophilus_influenzae_and_Staphylococcus_aureus_nasopharyngeal_colonisation_in_a_rural_South_African_community_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264-410X(14)00974-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -