Patient-tailored application for Duchene muscular dystrophy on mdx mice based induced mesenchymal stem cells.Exp Mol Pathol. 2014 Oct; 97(2):253-8.EM
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may be used as powerful tools for the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues. However, isolating tissue specific-derived MSCs may cause pain and increased infection rates in patients, and repetitive isolations may be required. To overcome these difficulties, we have examined alternative methods for MSC production. Here, we show that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be differentiated into mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) following exposure to SB431542. Purified iMSCs were administered to mdx mice to study skeletal muscle regeneration in a murine model of muscular dystrophy. Purified iMSCs displayed fibroblast-like morphology, formed three-dimensional spheroid structures, and expressed characteristic mesenchymal stem cell surface markers such as CD29, CD33, CD73, CD90, and CD105. Moreover, iMSCs were capable of differentiating into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Transplanting iMSC cells to tibialis anterior skeletal muscle tissue in mdx mice lowered oxidative damage as evidenced by a reduction in nitrotyrosine levels, and normal dystrophin expression levels were restored. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of purified iMSCs in skeletal muscle regeneration in mdx mice, and suggests that iPSCs are a viable alternate source for deriving MSCs as needed.