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Measuring school climate in high schools: a focus on safety, engagement, and the environment.
J Sch Health. 2014 Sep; 84(9):593-604.JS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model.

METHODS

Drawing upon 2 consecutive waves of data from over 25,000 high school students (46% minority), a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses examined the fit of the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Climate Survey with the USDOE model.

RESULTS

The results indicated adequate model fit with the theorized 3-factor model of school climate, which included 13 subdomains: safety (perceived safety, bullying and aggression, and drug use); engagement (connection to teachers, student connectedness, academic engagement, school connectedness, equity, and parent engagement); environment (rules and consequences, physical comfort, and support, disorder). We also found consistent measurement invariance with regard to student sex, grade level, and ethnicity. School-level interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.04 to .10 for the scales.

CONCLUSIONS

Findings supported the USDOE 3-factor model of school climate and suggest measurement invariance and high internal consistency of the 3 scales and 13 subdomains. These results suggest the 56-item measure may be a potentially efficient, yet comprehensive measure of school climate.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Johns Hopkins Center for the Prevention of Youth Violence, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21295. cbradsha@jhsph.edu.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25117894

Citation

Bradshaw, Catherine P., et al. "Measuring School Climate in High Schools: a Focus On Safety, Engagement, and the Environment." The Journal of School Health, vol. 84, no. 9, 2014, pp. 593-604.
Bradshaw CP, Waasdorp TE, Debnam KJ, et al. Measuring school climate in high schools: a focus on safety, engagement, and the environment. J Sch Health. 2014;84(9):593-604.
Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., Debnam, K. J., & Johnson, S. L. (2014). Measuring school climate in high schools: a focus on safety, engagement, and the environment. The Journal of School Health, 84(9), 593-604. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12186
Bradshaw CP, et al. Measuring School Climate in High Schools: a Focus On Safety, Engagement, and the Environment. J Sch Health. 2014;84(9):593-604. PubMed PMID: 25117894.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Measuring school climate in high schools: a focus on safety, engagement, and the environment. AU - Bradshaw,Catherine P, AU - Waasdorp,Tracy E, AU - Debnam,Katrina J, AU - Johnson,Sarah Lindstrom, PY - 2013/07/25/received PY - 2013/12/23/revised PY - 2014/01/05/accepted PY - 2014/8/14/entrez PY - 2014/8/15/pubmed PY - 2015/5/28/medline KW - engagement KW - environment KW - measurement KW - safety KW - school climate KW - school improvement SP - 593 EP - 604 JF - The Journal of school health JO - J Sch Health VL - 84 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model. METHODS: Drawing upon 2 consecutive waves of data from over 25,000 high school students (46% minority), a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses examined the fit of the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Climate Survey with the USDOE model. RESULTS: The results indicated adequate model fit with the theorized 3-factor model of school climate, which included 13 subdomains: safety (perceived safety, bullying and aggression, and drug use); engagement (connection to teachers, student connectedness, academic engagement, school connectedness, equity, and parent engagement); environment (rules and consequences, physical comfort, and support, disorder). We also found consistent measurement invariance with regard to student sex, grade level, and ethnicity. School-level interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.04 to .10 for the scales. CONCLUSIONS: Findings supported the USDOE 3-factor model of school climate and suggest measurement invariance and high internal consistency of the 3 scales and 13 subdomains. These results suggest the 56-item measure may be a potentially efficient, yet comprehensive measure of school climate. SN - 1746-1561 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25117894/Measuring_school_climate_in_high_schools:_a_focus_on_safety_engagement_and_the_environment_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12186 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -