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Sunlight exposure, pigmentation, and incident age-related macular degeneration.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014; 55(9):5855-61IO

Abstract

PURPOSE

Examine potential effects of sunlight exposure, hair color, eye color, and selected gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on incidence of AMD.

METHODS

Subjects participated in up to five examinations over a 20-year period. Eye color, self-reported hair color as a teenager, and sunlight exposure were ascertained at the baseline examination. Presence and severity of AMD and its lesions were determined via fundus photographs. Genetic data were available on a subset of participants. The SNPs CFH Y402H rs1061170 and ARMS2 A69S rs10490924 were used to analyze genetic risk of AMD; OCA2 rs4778241 and HERC2 rs12913832 represented genetic determinants of eye color.

RESULTS

Incidence of early AMD was higher in blond/red-haired persons compared with brown/black-haired persons (hazard ratio [HR] 1.25, P = 0.02) and in persons with high sun exposure in their thirties (HR 1.41, P = 0.02). However, neither was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Eye (HR 1.36, P = 0.006) and hair color (HR 1.42, P = 0.003) were associated with incidence of any retinal pigmentary abnormalities (RPAs). Both remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Neither presence of alleles for light-colored eyes nor those associated with high risk of late AMD altered the association of eye or hair color with early AMD. None of the characteristics studied were significantly associated with late AMD.

CONCLUSIONS

Modest associations of eye color, hair color, and HERC2 genotype with any RPAs were found. Genes for AMD did not affect these associations. Eye color phenotype was more strongly associated with outcomes than HERC2 or OCA2 genotype.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States.Departments of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Genetics & Genome Sciences and Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States.Departments of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Genetics & Genome Sciences and Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25125603

Citation

Klein, Barbara E K., et al. "Sunlight Exposure, Pigmentation, and Incident Age-related Macular Degeneration." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 55, no. 9, 2014, pp. 5855-61.
Klein BE, Howard KP, Iyengar SK, et al. Sunlight exposure, pigmentation, and incident age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55(9):5855-61.
Klein, B. E., Howard, K. P., Iyengar, S. K., Sivakumaran, T. A., Meyers, K. J., Cruickshanks, K. J., & Klein, R. (2014). Sunlight exposure, pigmentation, and incident age-related macular degeneration. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55(9), pp. 5855-61. doi:10.1167/iovs.14-14602.
Klein BE, et al. Sunlight Exposure, Pigmentation, and Incident Age-related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Aug 14;55(9):5855-61. PubMed PMID: 25125603.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sunlight exposure, pigmentation, and incident age-related macular degeneration. AU - Klein,Barbara E K, AU - Howard,Kerri P, AU - Iyengar,Sudha K, AU - Sivakumaran,Theru A, AU - Meyers,Kristin J, AU - Cruickshanks,Karen J, AU - Klein,Ronald, Y1 - 2014/08/14/ PY - 2014/8/16/entrez PY - 2014/8/16/pubmed PY - 2014/11/6/medline KW - age-related macular degeneration KW - eye color KW - hair color KW - pigmentation KW - sunlight exposure SP - 5855 EP - 61 JF - Investigative ophthalmology & visual science JO - Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. VL - 55 IS - 9 N2 - PURPOSE: Examine potential effects of sunlight exposure, hair color, eye color, and selected gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on incidence of AMD. METHODS: Subjects participated in up to five examinations over a 20-year period. Eye color, self-reported hair color as a teenager, and sunlight exposure were ascertained at the baseline examination. Presence and severity of AMD and its lesions were determined via fundus photographs. Genetic data were available on a subset of participants. The SNPs CFH Y402H rs1061170 and ARMS2 A69S rs10490924 were used to analyze genetic risk of AMD; OCA2 rs4778241 and HERC2 rs12913832 represented genetic determinants of eye color. RESULTS: Incidence of early AMD was higher in blond/red-haired persons compared with brown/black-haired persons (hazard ratio [HR] 1.25, P = 0.02) and in persons with high sun exposure in their thirties (HR 1.41, P = 0.02). However, neither was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Eye (HR 1.36, P = 0.006) and hair color (HR 1.42, P = 0.003) were associated with incidence of any retinal pigmentary abnormalities (RPAs). Both remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Neither presence of alleles for light-colored eyes nor those associated with high risk of late AMD altered the association of eye or hair color with early AMD. None of the characteristics studied were significantly associated with late AMD. CONCLUSIONS: Modest associations of eye color, hair color, and HERC2 genotype with any RPAs were found. Genes for AMD did not affect these associations. Eye color phenotype was more strongly associated with outcomes than HERC2 or OCA2 genotype. SN - 1552-5783 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25125603/Sunlight_exposure_pigmentation_and_incident_age_related_macular_degeneration_ L2 - http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/iovs.14-14602 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -