Identification of putative kdr mutations in the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).Pest Manag Sci. 2015 Jul; 71(7):1015-20.PM
Bed bugs [both Cimex hemipterus (F.) and Cimex lectularius L.] are highly resistant to pyrethroids worldwide. An important resistance mechanism known as 'knockdown resistance' (kdr) is caused by genetic point mutations on the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene. Previous studies have identified two point mutations (V419L and L925I) on the VGSC gene in C. lectularius that are responsible for kdr-type resistance. However, the kdr mutations in C. hemipterus have not been investigated.
Four novel mutations, L899V (leucine to valine), M918I (methionine to isoleucine), D953G (aspartic acid to glycine) and L1014F (leucine to phenylalanine), were identified in the domain II region of the C. hemipterus VGSC gene. This region has been widely investigated for the study of kdr-type resistance to pyrethroids in other insect pests. The V419L and L925I kdr mutations as previously identified in C. lectularius were not detected in C. hemipterus.
M918I and L1014F are considered to be probable kdr mutations and may play essential roles in kdr-type resistance to pyrethroids in C. hemipterus. Further studies are under way in the authors' laboratory to determine the non-kdr-type resistance mechanisms in C. hemipterus.