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Poor dietary diversity and low nutrient density of the complementary diet for 6- to 24-month-old children in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Matern Child Nutr. 2016 07; 12(3):528-45.MC

Abstract

Infants and toddlers have high nutritional requirements relative to body size but consume small amounts of food and therefore need nutrient-dense complementary foods. A cross-sectional study included children aged 6-24 months, stratified in three age categories (6-11 months, 12-17 months and 18-24 months) and randomly selected from an urban (n = 158) and a rural (n = 158) area, both of low socio-economic status, in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Dietary diversity and nutrient density of the complementary diet (excluding breast milk and formula milk) based on a repeated 24-h dietary recall was assessed. For breastfeeding children, nutrient density of the complementary diet was adequate for protein, vitamin A and vitamin C; and inadequate for 100% of children for zinc, for >80% of children for calcium, iron and niacin; and between 60% and 80% of children for vitamin B6 and riboflavin. Urban/rural differences in density for animal and plant protein, cholesterol and fibre occurred in 18-24-month-old children. Fewer than 25% of children consumed ≥4 food groups, with no urban/rural differences. Higher dietary diversity was associated with higher nutrient density for protein and several of the micronutrients including calcium, iron and zinc. The poor nutrient density for key micronutrients can probably be ascribed to lack of dietary variety, and little impact of mandatory fortification of maize meal/wheat flour on infants/toddlers' diet. Targeted strategies are needed to enable mothers to feed their children a more varied diet.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa.Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa.Centre for Excellence for Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25138429

Citation

Faber, Mieke, et al. "Poor Dietary Diversity and Low Nutrient Density of the Complementary Diet for 6- to 24-month-old Children in Urban and Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa." Maternal & Child Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 3, 2016, pp. 528-45.
Faber M, Laubscher R, Berti C. Poor dietary diversity and low nutrient density of the complementary diet for 6- to 24-month-old children in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Matern Child Nutr. 2016;12(3):528-45.
Faber, M., Laubscher, R., & Berti, C. (2016). Poor dietary diversity and low nutrient density of the complementary diet for 6- to 24-month-old children in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 12(3), 528-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12146
Faber M, Laubscher R, Berti C. Poor Dietary Diversity and Low Nutrient Density of the Complementary Diet for 6- to 24-month-old Children in Urban and Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Matern Child Nutr. 2016;12(3):528-45. PubMed PMID: 25138429.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Poor dietary diversity and low nutrient density of the complementary diet for 6- to 24-month-old children in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. AU - Faber,Mieke, AU - Laubscher,Ria, AU - Berti,Cristiana, Y1 - 2014/08/19/ PY - 2014/8/21/entrez PY - 2014/8/21/pubmed PY - 2017/11/8/medline KW - breastfeeding KW - complementary foods KW - food and nutrient intake KW - infant feeding KW - infant formula KW - micronutrients SP - 528 EP - 45 JF - Maternal & child nutrition JO - Matern Child Nutr VL - 12 IS - 3 N2 - Infants and toddlers have high nutritional requirements relative to body size but consume small amounts of food and therefore need nutrient-dense complementary foods. A cross-sectional study included children aged 6-24 months, stratified in three age categories (6-11 months, 12-17 months and 18-24 months) and randomly selected from an urban (n = 158) and a rural (n = 158) area, both of low socio-economic status, in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Dietary diversity and nutrient density of the complementary diet (excluding breast milk and formula milk) based on a repeated 24-h dietary recall was assessed. For breastfeeding children, nutrient density of the complementary diet was adequate for protein, vitamin A and vitamin C; and inadequate for 100% of children for zinc, for >80% of children for calcium, iron and niacin; and between 60% and 80% of children for vitamin B6 and riboflavin. Urban/rural differences in density for animal and plant protein, cholesterol and fibre occurred in 18-24-month-old children. Fewer than 25% of children consumed ≥4 food groups, with no urban/rural differences. Higher dietary diversity was associated with higher nutrient density for protein and several of the micronutrients including calcium, iron and zinc. The poor nutrient density for key micronutrients can probably be ascribed to lack of dietary variety, and little impact of mandatory fortification of maize meal/wheat flour on infants/toddlers' diet. Targeted strategies are needed to enable mothers to feed their children a more varied diet. SN - 1740-8709 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25138429/Poor_dietary_diversity_and_low_nutrient_density_of_the_complementary_diet_for_6__to_24_month_old_children_in_urban_and_rural_KwaZulu_Natal_South_Africa_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12146 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -