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Antibiotic dispensation by Lebanese pharmacists: a comparison of higher and lower socio-economic levels.
J Infect Public Health. 2015 Jan-Feb; 8(1):37-46.JI

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Indiscriminate use of antibiotics contributes to a global spread of antimicrobial resistance. Previous studies showed an excessive consumption of antibiotics purchased without medical prescription from community pharmacies, mainly in developing countries. There is a shortage of studies revealing the role of community pharmacists in the overuse of antibiotics. Our objective is to study the dispensing policy of non-medical prescription antibiotics in community pharmacies, assessing the possible influence of the socio-economic level of the area over this practice.

METHODS

A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and May 2011 among 100 pharmacists working in Beirut's pharmacies and its suburbs. Pharmacies were divided into 2 groups according to the socio-economic level of the population living in the pharmacy area. A self-administered questionnaire was filled by pharmacists.

RESULTS

Over-the-counter antibiotic availability existed in both higher and lower socio-economic areas: on the whole, 32% of antibiotics were dispensed without medical prescription, with higher frequency in lower socio-economic areas (p=0.003). Dispensing injectable antibiotics without medical prescription was significantly higher in lower socio-economic areas (p=0.021), as well as dispensing an association of 2 antibiotics without medical prescription (p=0.001). Pharmacists working in lower socio-economic areas recommended more frequent antibiotics to children and the elderly (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively).

CONCLUSION

Dispensing antibiotics without medical prescription in Beirut community pharmacies is a common practice, particularly in lower socioeconomic areas. This public health problem should be addressed at the social, educational, and legislative levels.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Public Health, Section II, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address: ritajfarah@hotmail.com.Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address: nathalie.lahoud@hotmail.com.Faculty of Public Health, Section II, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address: pascalesalameh1@hotmail.com.Faculty of Public Health, Section II, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address: nadeensh@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25139454

Citation

Farah, Rita, et al. "Antibiotic Dispensation By Lebanese Pharmacists: a Comparison of Higher and Lower Socio-economic Levels." Journal of Infection and Public Health, vol. 8, no. 1, 2015, pp. 37-46.
Farah R, Lahoud N, Salameh P, et al. Antibiotic dispensation by Lebanese pharmacists: a comparison of higher and lower socio-economic levels. J Infect Public Health. 2015;8(1):37-46.
Farah, R., Lahoud, N., Salameh, P., & Saleh, N. (2015). Antibiotic dispensation by Lebanese pharmacists: a comparison of higher and lower socio-economic levels. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 8(1), 37-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2014.07.003
Farah R, et al. Antibiotic Dispensation By Lebanese Pharmacists: a Comparison of Higher and Lower Socio-economic Levels. J Infect Public Health. 2015 Jan-Feb;8(1):37-46. PubMed PMID: 25139454.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Antibiotic dispensation by Lebanese pharmacists: a comparison of higher and lower socio-economic levels. AU - Farah,Rita, AU - Lahoud,Nathalie, AU - Salameh,Pascale, AU - Saleh,Nadine, Y1 - 2014/08/16/ PY - 2013/12/15/received PY - 2014/06/18/revised PY - 2014/07/11/accepted PY - 2014/8/21/entrez PY - 2014/8/21/pubmed PY - 2015/9/18/medline KW - Community pharmacist KW - Dispensing antibiotics KW - Lebanon KW - Medical prescription KW - Socio-economic level SP - 37 EP - 46 JF - Journal of infection and public health JO - J Infect Public Health VL - 8 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics contributes to a global spread of antimicrobial resistance. Previous studies showed an excessive consumption of antibiotics purchased without medical prescription from community pharmacies, mainly in developing countries. There is a shortage of studies revealing the role of community pharmacists in the overuse of antibiotics. Our objective is to study the dispensing policy of non-medical prescription antibiotics in community pharmacies, assessing the possible influence of the socio-economic level of the area over this practice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and May 2011 among 100 pharmacists working in Beirut's pharmacies and its suburbs. Pharmacies were divided into 2 groups according to the socio-economic level of the population living in the pharmacy area. A self-administered questionnaire was filled by pharmacists. RESULTS: Over-the-counter antibiotic availability existed in both higher and lower socio-economic areas: on the whole, 32% of antibiotics were dispensed without medical prescription, with higher frequency in lower socio-economic areas (p=0.003). Dispensing injectable antibiotics without medical prescription was significantly higher in lower socio-economic areas (p=0.021), as well as dispensing an association of 2 antibiotics without medical prescription (p=0.001). Pharmacists working in lower socio-economic areas recommended more frequent antibiotics to children and the elderly (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: Dispensing antibiotics without medical prescription in Beirut community pharmacies is a common practice, particularly in lower socioeconomic areas. This public health problem should be addressed at the social, educational, and legislative levels. SN - 1876-035X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25139454/Antibiotic_dispensation_by_Lebanese_pharmacists:_a_comparison_of_higher_and_lower_socio_economic_levels_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1876-0341(14)00103-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -