Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Apr; 1851(4):469-84.BB

Abstract

Inflammation is a condition which contributes to a range of human diseases. It involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators, and interactions. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to partly inhibit a number of aspects of inflammation including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines, and T-helper 1 lymphocyte reactivity. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of marine n-3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked, although the full extent of this is not yet elucidated. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from marine n-3 fatty acids in models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in RA demonstrate benefit, but clinical trials of fish oil in IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".

Authors+Show Affiliations

Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust and University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: pcc@soton.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25149823

Citation

Calder, Philip C.. "Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes: Effects, Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance." Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1851, no. 4, 2015, pp. 469-84.
Calder PC. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1851(4):469-84.
Calder, P. C. (2015). Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, 1851(4), 469-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.08.010
Calder PC. Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes: Effects, Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1851(4):469-84. PubMed PMID: 25149823.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. A1 - Calder,Philip C, Y1 - 2014/08/20/ PY - 2014/05/16/received PY - 2014/08/12/revised PY - 2014/08/13/accepted PY - 2014/8/24/entrez PY - 2014/8/26/pubmed PY - 2015/9/9/medline KW - Cytokine KW - Eicosanoid KW - Inflammation KW - Lymphocyte KW - Macrophage KW - Resolvin SP - 469 EP - 84 JF - Biochimica et biophysica acta JO - Biochim. Biophys. Acta VL - 1851 IS - 4 N2 - Inflammation is a condition which contributes to a range of human diseases. It involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators, and interactions. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to partly inhibit a number of aspects of inflammation including leukocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines, and T-helper 1 lymphocyte reactivity. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of marine n-3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked, although the full extent of this is not yet elucidated. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from marine n-3 fatty acids in models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in RA demonstrate benefit, but clinical trials of fish oil in IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance". SN - 0006-3002 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25149823/Marine_omega_3_fatty_acids_and_inflammatory_processes:_Effects_mechanisms_and_clinical_relevance_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1388-1981(14)00165-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -