Structure and expression of dog apolipoprotein A-I, E, and C-I mRNAs: implications for the evolution and functional constraints of apolipoprotein structure.J Lipid Res. 1989 Nov; 30(11):1735-46.JL
Dog apolipoprotein (apo) C-I, A-I, and E cDNA clones were identified in a dog liver cDNA library in lambda gt10 by hybridization to synthetic oligonucleotide probes with the corresponding human DNA sequences. The longest clone for each apolipoprotein was completely sequenced. The apoC-I cDNA sequence predicts a protein of 62 residue mature peptide preceded by a 26 amino acid signal peptide. The apoA-I cDNA sequence predicts a 242 residue mature peptide, a 6 residue pro-segment, and an 18 residue signal peptide. The apoE cDNA, which lacks the signal peptide region, predicts a mature peptide of 291 amino acid residues. Slot blot hybridization of total RNA isolated from various dog tissues to dog apoC-I, A-I, and E cDNA probes indicates that apoC-I mRNA is detectable in liver only, apoA-I mRNA is present in liver and small intestine, though the concentration in the latter tissue is only approximately 15% of that in the liver, and apoE mRNA is present in multiple tissues including liver, jejunum, urinary bladder, ileum, colon, brain, kidney, spleen, pancreas, and testis with relative concentrations (%) of 100, 17.5, 7.5, 6.9, 5.9, 5.5, 5.0, 3.3, 1.0, and 1.0, respectively. These tissue distributions indicate that nascent lipoprotein particles produced in the dog small intestine would contain apoA-I and apoE but not apoC-I. The widespread tissue distribution of apoE mRNA indicates that like other mammals, peripheral synthesis of apoE contributes significantly to the total apoE pool in dog. We next compared the cDNA sequences among different vertebrate species for apoC-I (human and dog), A-I (human, rat, dog, rabbit and chicken), and E (human, rat, dog and rabbit) and calculated the rate of nucleotide substitution for each gene. Our results indicate that apoC-I has evolved rather rapidly and that on the whole, apoA-I is more conservative than apoE, contradictory to an earlier suggestion. ApoA-I is also more conservative than a region (residues 4204-4536) at the carboxyl-terminal portion, but less conservative than a region (residues 595-979) at the amino-terminal portion of apoB-100. Some regions in each of the apolipoproteins studied are better conserved than others and the rate of evolution of individual regions seems to be related to the stringency of functional requirements. Finally, we estimate that the human apoC-I pseudogene arose more than 35 million years ago, becoming nonfunctional soon after its formation.